After the Scramble for Africa (1870-1914), European countries fought for claims of the African continent

The Berlin Conference:

Who: Britain, France, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Germany, and Belgium
What: Meeting of the major European powers to come up with rules for dividing the African Continent
When: 1884-1885
Where: Berlin, Germany
Why: To prevent war between competing nations and to prevent any one imperial power from gaining too much control over the African continent

The Berlin Conference

Rules Established:

  • Nations must publicly announce claims of territory
  • Effectively occupy territory
  • Extend control from coast to interior
  • Negotiate treaty with local peoples that would constitute a claim to sovereignty
  • Agreed traders and missionaries have access to interior
  • Agreed Congo and Niger rivers were international waterways
  • Christianity should be brought to all Africans
  • Destroy slave trade

The Division of Africa

How European countries controlled their Territory:

1) Indirect Rule- British- native rulers are told what to do by British representatives
2) Direct Rule- French- French controlled the colonies (themselves)
3) Paternalism- Belgium- treat their Africans as children that need to be disciplined
4) Assimilation- Portuguese- making the Africans adopt European culture (language, customs, law, etc.)


African Resistance:


  • 1887 & 1896- Ethiopian army defeated Italians
  • Emperor Menelik II created modern state of Ethiopia (including modern military)
  • Ethiopia remained independent until 1930s when Benito Mussolini sought revenge and occupied Ethiopia

ethiopia.gif Ethiopia_Flag.gif

  • Built empire on West Africa's gold coast
  • By early 1800s- covered 150,000 square miles
  • Included 3-5 million people
  • Strong king & bureaucracy
  • Capital- Kumasi- commercial center
  • Clashed with British for 75 years
  • 1873- full scale attack against Ashanti using modern weaponry and African allies


  • Largest South African group
  • Fought with the British
  • Leader of Zulu tribe- Shaka Zulu- improved fighting tactics
    Shaka Zulu

Effects of European Imperialism:

  • Improved medicine
  • Cash crop agriculture
  • Africans were made into tenants instead of tribes
  • Taxes increased
  • Urban areas- Africans had to work for Europeans
  • Europeans imposed their laws, history, and education
  • Europeans separated traditional ethnic groups and put together traditional enemies when creating new boundaries
  • Improved transportation and communication


African Independence movements occured throughout the 1950s, 1960s and1970s. One reason behind Africa's desire for independence at this time was WWII. They viewed the imperialistic powers as hypocrites, as they had just finished fighting a war to stop one nation from taking over areas of Europe, while they themselves where guilty of the same thing in Africa.



  • Colony of Britain
  • Independence date: March 6, 1957
  • First major African country to get independence
  • Led by Kwame Nkrumah --- educated in England and was a skilled orator
  • Uses his political party- CPP (Convention People's Party) to gain support
  • Became Prime minister in 1952 and later President in 1960- 1966
  • After independence, Nkrumah declares CPP sole political party
  • He gave himself all the power; no democracy; people began to fear the government
  • Economy worsened
  • Corruption in government and military takeovers- several military takeovers (coup d'etat)
  • 1966- Present day: run by military


Kwame Nkrumah



  • Colony of Britain
  • Independence: 1963
  • Led by Jomo Kenyatta
  • Formed political parties in protest
  • Kenyatta emerges leader and travels to London to petition for African representation in legislation
  • Mau- Mau revolt- bloody uprising
  • After independence- President leads them along a moderate path- encourages land reform and foreign investment
  • Sets up a republic


Mau-Mau Revolt

Jomo Kenyatta

  • Colony of Belgium
  • Independence Date- June 30, 1960
  • Led by Patrice Lumumba
  • Gained independence through riots against Belgian rule and bloody fighting
  • After independence, they formed a coalition government composed of members of several parties
  • Military dictatorship- Zaire- Democratic Republic of the Congo


Patrice Lumumba

  • Colony of Portugal
  • Independence- 1974-1975
  • Led by political party FRELIMO
  • Used guerrilla warfare to gain independence
  • Since independence, there has been civil war and many deaths


Problems since African Independence:

  • Economic Development- Europeans used their technology to take resources of Africa when they left; unskilled worker; economic imperialism
  • AIDS has been a major problem since emerging in the 1980s- wiped out a generation of Africans
  • Desertification- deserts growing
  • Ethnic/Tribal Rivalries- due to divide and conquer
  • Economic standing has decreased since independence
  • Few states have the economic resources to satisfy popular expectation




History of South Africa:

  • Mediterranean climate- good for agriculture
  • Located at the tip of Africa- made it a "pit stop" for Europeans on their way from India and Asia
  • Population divided into 4 major groups- Black Africans (majority), European Africans, Asians, and Coloreds

Data recorded in 2008

European Arrival:

  • The Dutch arrived in the late 1600s and early 1700s
  • Established farming settlements around Cape Town and developed a language called Afrikaans
  • They became known as the Afrikaners, or Boers
  • British government gained control of Cape Colony at the end of the 1700s
  • Conflicted with the Afrikaners
  • Made English official language and ban slavery
  • Afrikaners create the Transvaal and Orange Free State in 1836- the Great Trek

Cape Town

The Boer War (1899-1902):


  • Gold and diamonds found in Transvaal and Orange Free State
  • Thousands rush in- war develops between Britain and Afrikaners over control of the land



  • Britain defeated Boers and made the Afrikaner republics part of the British colony

The Boer War



  • "Separateness"- Afrikaners created a system of strict racial separation in all areas of society
  • Established in 1948 by the National Party
  • Laws under Apartheid:
Population Registration Act

Group Areas Act

Townships & Homelands

Pass Laws

Bantu Education Act
Mixed Marriage Act
Required all South Africans to be classified according to race; 4 accepted categories- White, African, Asian, and colored

Divided South Africa into areas according to race. Each group lived in their own area- the white South Africans had the best land

Black South Africans assigned to a homeland, even if they never lived there before; slum-like conditions; white’s controlled entrance of blacks into white areas

Required all non-whites to carry government-issued identification papers with them wherever they went within the country. Those that didn’t have it were subject to jail time and abuse

Separate educational systems for blacks; highly inferior to the schools provided for whites
It was against the law for people of different races to have sexual relations


African National Congress:

  • formed in 1912
  • Led by Nelson Mandela and Oliver Tambo
  • Used mass protest, boycotts, strikes, and large scale acts of noncooperation o fight for better education, a say in government; etc.
  • Issued Freedom Charter in 1956


Major Rebellions:
  • Sharpeville Massacre (1960)- Pan Africa Congress (PAC) holds a strike against pass laws- appeared at police stations without passes- police officers opened fire and killed 69 people; government arrests 1500 African leaders and banned ANC & PAC
  • Soweto Uprising (1976)- 20,000 school children marched to protest the black schools having to teach subject in Afrikaans; police opened fire and killed 4 students; focused the world's attention on South Africa

Sharpeville Massacre
Soweto Uprising

Important People:

  • Nelson Mandela- black nationalist leader; believed in violent protest; sent to jail in 1962 and released in 1990; became first black South African president in 1994
Nelson Mandela

  • Steven Biko- Spokesman for Black Consciousness Movement; encouraged protest against white dominated institutions; jailed and was beaten and killed by police interrogators in 1977
Steven Biko

  • F.W. de Klerk- White South African president from 1989-1994; freed Mandela from jail and ended Apartheid
F.W. de Klerk

  • Desmond Tutu- Anglican bishop; encouraged peaceful, nonviolent protests; convinced the U.S. to stop trading with South Africa

Desmond Tutu

Post - Apartheid:

  • Economic- Many non-white South Africans still in poverty
  • Political- Mandela and de Klerk become President and Vice President, respectively; 1994- the first multiracial democratic election
  • Social- whites and black South Africans still disagree on the future of South Africa



gen⋅o⋅cide – noun- the deliberate and systematic extermination of a national, racial, political, or cultural group

Pretext of Genocide:
  • The minority, the Tutsis, held most of the land because the Belgians favored them.
  • They also held most of the government jobs and had educational privileges that the Hutus did not, creating tensions between Hutus and Tutsis
  • When the country got independence, the Hutus gained control
  • 1993- Tutsi army officers killed Burundi's (country south of Rwanda) first president


  • One million Hutus and Tutsis killed
  • Machetes and clubs were most used as weapons
  • Hutus raped many Tutsi womenCivilian death squads- Interahamwe - were responsible for the largest massacres
  • People were encouraged over hate Radio (RTLM) to kill the Tutsis, aka cockroaches, because they were told that the Tutsis were going to destroy Rwanda and kill the Hutus


  • Disregarded warnings prior to genocide
  • Condemned the violence, but did little to stop it
  • U.S. refused to stop the hate radio and also refused to define the killings as a 'genocide'



Pretext of genocide:
  • Ethnic and religious clash in Sudan- the government is Arabian and the majority are poor, black Christians
  • Civil war between the black Sudanese and the Arabian government for a share of the wealth and more rights


  • 2003- the Arab government hired the Janjaweed, aka Devils on Horseback, to go into the Darfur villages and burn homes, slaughter men, rape women, and loot the homes and villages


  • UN has declared it a genocide but has not taken action because China has interest in an oil pipeline in Sudan, so the idea to intervene was vetoed
  • al-Bashir is leader of Sudan, who claimed to have info on Al- Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden, has been able to keep the U.S. from attacking
  • The U.S. does not want to alienate China and believes that it will not be in the best interest of the United States' national security to intervene