Treaty of Nanking

-a treaty ending the First Opium War between the British and Qing Empire -forced China to lower tariffs

-attempted to abolish monopoly of foreign trade -Qing government had to pay:

  • 6 million dollars for the confiscated Opium
  • 12 million dollars for the cost of the war
  • 3 million to compensate for debts

Taiping Rebellion

    • revolt in china from 1850-1864

    • 1850 organized an army led by Hong Xiuquan

established Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

    • tried to institute social reforms:

      • separation of the sexes

      • prohibiting foot binding

      • ending private trade

      • replacing Buddhism &Confucianism with a form of Christianity

    • Taiping areas constantly bothered by Qing army

    • Estimated 20-30 million people died

    • 1853-City of Nanjing captured and declared capital



-Countries took advantage of China’s unresolved internal issues and attacked -brought their influence

and economic control along with


Dowager Empress Cixi

Empress Dowager
    • The Empress Dowager Cixi had reigns of power from 1862-1908,
    • she believed in traditional style of rule
    • Created reforms such as improving education and setting up factories to build steam powered boats, ammunition and rifles.
    • Empress Dowager was in power of China from 1861-1908

Open Door Policy

-The Open Door Policy was made to give any country the rights to set trade in china, but China could not become a colony
-This was effective but the country was subjected to foreign rule
-High economic tensions rose
-The European countries took advantage of the Chinese
- Opium War (1839-1842) was a resulted in this because British were selling illegal opium to china's people
-The Open Door Policy Failed due to the fact that China became industrialized by all of the foreign influences in China
-Boxer Rebellion


    • Guangxu was a young emperor who brought an idea of modernizing China (February 25, 1875- November 14, 1908)
    • The ideas of modernizing did not work out and frustration was built in the eyes of the Chinese people.
    • He initiated the Hundred Days Reform
    • Hundred Days Reform-104 day national cultural, political, and educational reform movement from June 11-September 21, 1898
    • Hundred Day Reform was a failure

Boxer Rebellion

Boxer Rebellion

• Finally the Boxer Rebellion happened because of foreigners
• poor peasants and merchants wanted the privileges that foreigners had
• Chinese made a secret group called the Society of Righteous and Harmonioust Fists or the Boxers
• Spring 1900- Boxers marched to Beijing and surrounded the city
•Boxers went to kill foreigners, Chinese Christians, and missionaries
• They kept the city under siege for several months
• August: a multinational army of 19,000 troops and defeated the boxers
•China had to pay taxes for the Western Nations sending troops--$1million per country
•This greatly weakened the Qin Dynasty which lead to the 1911 Revolution against them lead by the nationalist group called the Kuomintang

Dowager Empress

Empress Dowager

• 1905 Dowager Empress sent officials to check out other types of governments
• 1906 they suggested change in the structure of government
• Reforms started…but were not effective when internal and external problems flourished

Sun Yixian
Sun Yixian
• Sun Yixian leader of the Nationalist Party
• In 1911 overthrew the Qing Dynasty which was in power since 1644
• 1912 Sun Yixian became first President of China’s republic

•Kuomintang was Yixian's official party
• 1916 civil war broke out, territories were owned by military leaders and war lords
•Sun Yixian was fighting a civil war and a war against Japan
•This greatly weakened the Nationalist party's army
•He succeeded his power to Yuan Shikai who lasted for about 3 months
•After this he tried to revive the monarchy with him being "The Great Emperor of China"

Mao Zedong raises a communist nation

The Long March

-Long march- Group of chinese communists led by Mao Zedong that traveled 6000 miles across china to rise a communist regime.
-Led to civil war in china during 1930’s. Led to an easy take over for the japanese and the rape of Nanking.

Mao Zedong

-Mao Zedong and communists win war in 1949 and china is officially communist.
-China expanded into Mongolia,Tibet and India.
-Mao controlled 70 percent of farm land 10 percent of rural communities and he eventually made farmers go on collective farms.

economic progress
”The Great Leap Forward”
- Forcing people into larger government ran collective farms. Attempted to industrialize china by making people move from their rural areas to a more urban setting to fuel industrialization. Another plan was to encourage increasing the population of china which he later figured out would hurt china because the more people in a communist government the more responsibility the government has to take care of those people.
-This was a great leap backwards because it made people not want to work as hard when they can not work for themselves or work where they want to work..

-Cultural revolution- Goal was to make all peasants and workers equal under the same social structure.
great leap foward
Zhou Enlai(left) and Richard Nixon(right)
-New power named Zhou Enlai became worried of losing communist support so in an effort to raise the economy he opened his doors to the US during Nixon's term
-1979 the chinese and US established diplomatic relationships

"Deng Xiaoping"

-"Massacre at Tiananmen Square"- People mostly were protesting out against the communist party and Deng Xiaoping himself. So Deng Xiaoping sent in the army ordering break the protest up no matter the cost
-Almost all the people leave besides 5000 brave people. Here they revealed the statue called “Goddess of Democracy”
-The army fired into the crowd and killed almost 1000 students
-No one ever spoke out against the communist government ever again

Zemin(left) and Xiaoping(right)

-Deng Xiaoping finally died in 1997 after stepping out of the spotlight in 1995 and communist party general secretary Jiang Zemin took control of the presidency
-Zemin resigns in 2002 and gives up the presidency to his successor Hu Jintao. He also believes in a semi free market like Jiang.

Hong Kong from an arial view
-Hong Kong was finally released from colonial rule under England in 1997 and the Chinese promised to let them continue their free market ways for at least 50 years.
Summer olympics(Matt DeBlasio is better than phelps)
-China is attempting to show the world they are changing but slowly. An example of this was a successful summer olympics in Beijing in 2008.