History of China(before 1700) By: Jiana, Ashley and Natalie

-Chinese civilization started in city-states along the Yellow River valley
-Civilization began during the Neolithic era
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-The written history of China begins with the Shang Dynasty (ca. 1750BC - ca. 1045 BC)
-Turtle shells with ancient Chinese writing from the Shang Dynasty have been carbon dated to as early as 1500 BC

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-Chinese culture, literature and philosophy developed during the Zhou Dynasty (1045BC to 256 BC)
-The Zhou was the longest lasting dynasty
-The feudal Zhou Dynasty eventually broke apart into individual city states
-This resulted in the Warring States period
-In 221 BC, Qin Shi Huang united the various warring kingdoms and created the first Chinese empire
external image Qinshihuang.jpg -The dynasties that were successful developed bureaucratic systems
-The Emperor of China was able to directly control the large territory

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Qin Army of China

-Modern Chinese culture has been created by outside influences from many parts of Asia
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-These cultural and political influences were brought by immigration, expansion and assimilation
-The Yellow River was named that because of the loess that would build up on the bank, creating a yellowish tint to the water
-The early history of China is somewhat unknown because of the lack of a written language
-By 7000 BC, the Chinese were farming millet, creating the culture

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Geography and Its Effects 1. Location - In East Asia - Shares a border with India - Korean peninsula borders on East - Eastern coast is Pacific Ocean
Effects of Location: 2. Ethnocentrism= China developed the idea that they were the Middle Kingdom-center of the world; believed their culture was superior to all other cultures; other cultures were considered barbaric.

Desert-Gobi: no fertile land, very dry and empty, low population

Important Geographic Features

Mountains- Himalayas
prevented trade and invasion from foreigners
Rivers- Huang He (Yellow)
provided fertile soil, fishing, transportation and the beginning of a civilization
Plains- northeast coast
flat land, easily invaded
Desert- Gobi
no fertile land, very dry and empty, low population

-The Chinese were great intellectual thinkers
-They created many basic things such as:

Ø gun powder
Ø paper
Ø The compass
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Ø silk
Ø matches
Ø wheelbarrows
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Ø the decimal system
Ø the waterwheel
Ø the sundial
Ø astronomy
Ø porcelain china
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Ø lacquer paint
Ø pottery wheel
Ø fireworks
Ø paper money
Ø seismograph
Ø tangrams
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Ø medicines
Ø dominoes
Ø jump rope
Ø kites
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Ø tea
Ø folding umbrella
Ø ink
Ø calligraphy
Ø animal harness
Ø playing cards
Ø printing
Ø abacus
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Ø wallpaper
Ø the crossbow
Ø ice cream
and more!!

The Xia Dynasty
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-The Xia Dynasty is the first dynasty to be described in ancient historical records (ca. 2100 BC to 1600 BC)
- Early markings from this period found on pottery and shells are thought to be related to modern Chinese characters
-The Xia era remains poorly understood.

The Shang Dynasty
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-The earliest discovered written record from China dates from the Shang Dynastyin the 13th century BC
-These written records were found on the bones or shells of animals (oracle bones)
-The Shang Dynasty featured 31 kings, from Tang of Shang to King Zhou of Shang
-During this period, the Chinese worshiped many different gods
-They worshipped weather gods and sky gods
-They also worshipped a supreme god, named Shang-Ti
-Those who lived during the Shang Dynasty believed that their ancestors became like gods when they died, and that their ancestors wanted to be worshipped
-Around 1500 BC, the Chinese began to use written oracle bones to predict the future
-By the time of the Chou Dynasty (about 1100 BC), the Chinese were also worshiping a natural force called t'ien (Heaven)
- Like Shang-Ti, Heaven ruled over all the other gods
-Heaven decided who would rule China
-This is called the Mandate of Heaven
-The ruler could rule as long as he or she had the Mandate of Heaven
-It was lost
when natural disasters occurred and when the ruler had apparently lost his concern for the people

The Zhou Dynastyexternal image zhou-pot-b.jpg

Spring and Autumn Period
-In the 8th century BC, power became decentralized during the Spring and Autumn Period
-During this period, local military leaders used by the Zhou began to assert their power for hegemony
-The situation was intensified by the invasion of other peoples from the northwest, such as the Qin
-They forced the Zhou to move their capital east to Luoyang

-In each of the hundreds of states that eventually arose, local men held most of the political power
-Local leaders started using royal titles for themselves
-The “Hundred Schools of Thought" of Chinese philosophy grew during this period
-Influential intellectual movements as Confucianism, Taoism , Legalism
and Mohism were founded

The Warring Period

-Seven prominent states remained in China by the end of 5th century BC
-The years in which these few states battled each other are known as the Warring States Period-There was still a Zhou king until 256 BC, but he had little real power
-The final expansion in this period began during the reign of Ying Zheng, the king of Qin
-His unification of the other six powers, and further annexations in 214 BC enabled him to call himself the First Emperor, Qin Shi Huangdi

The Qin Dynasty

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-Historians often refer to the period from Qin Dynasty to the end of Qing Dynasty as Imperial China
-The unified reign of the Qin Emperor lasted only 12 years
-He tightly centralized Legalist
-The doctrine of legalism that guided the Qin emphasized strict adherence to a legal code and the absolute power of the emperor
-This philosophy of Legalism, was effective in expanding the empire in a military fashion

The Terracotta Army of Qin Shi Huang:
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-The Qin Dynasty is well known for beginning the Great Wall of China
-Other major contributions of the Qin include the concept of a centralized government, the unification of the legal code, written language, measurement, and currency of China

The Han Dynasty

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-The Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) emerged in 206 BC, with its founder Liu Bang proclaimed emperor in 202
-The first dynasty to embrace the philosophy of Confucianism
-Under the Han Dynasty, China made great advances in many areas of the arts and sciences
-Emperor Wu consolidated and extended the Chinese empire
-The Silk Road between China and the West opened
-This led to open trade and a big increase in cultural diffusion

Jin Period-The three kingdoms were reunited temporarily in 278 by the Jin Dynasty

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Sui Dynasty
-This dynasty reunited the country in 589 after nearly four centuries of political fragmentation
-The Sui brought China together again and set up many institutions that were to be adopted by their successors
-Like the Qin, however, the Sui overused their resources and collapsed.

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The political unity under the
Sui dynasty (589-618) made it possible to build the Grand Imperial Canal (607-10) which is the world's longest man-made waterway. Building techniques were not advanced, and the peasants, who did most of the work, suffered alot. About half of the six million men recruited to build the Canal died at their work. This contributed to the downfall of the shortlived Sui dynasty.
The Canal stretches over 1,000 miles in length and links the Yellow and Yang-tze river systems.

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Tang Dynasty (AD 618 - 907)
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-On June 18, 618, Gaozu took the throne, and the Tang Dynasty was established
-The Tang dynasty is when arts and culture flourished
-It was a very prosperous time
-Buddhism became the predominant religion and was adopted by the imperial family and many of the common people.
-The Tang, like the Han, kept the trade routes open to the west and south and there was extensive

Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
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-Kublai Kahn established the Yuan Dynasty
-He tried to gain support of all his peoples
-This was the first dynasty to rule China with Beijing at the capital
-The black Death killed 30% of China's population during this time
-The dynasty was ended because of famine, struggle and bitterness amoung the people

Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)external image ming1.jpg
-Hongwu was the Emperor and founder of the Ming Dynasty
-China under the early Ming Dynasty was not isolated
-Foreign trade and other contacts with the outside world, particularly Japanincreased considerably-The Ming economic system emphasized agriculture
-The dynasty had a strong and complex central government that unified and controlled the empire
-During the Ming dynasty the last construction on the Great Wall was undertaken to protect China from foreign invasions.

The Qing dynasty started in 1644 and went beyong the 1700's
It is the last ruling dynasty of China
There was many conflicts, but most importantly, during this time China was trying to be modernized

Golden Ages of China

Tang Dynasty
-The Silk Road reached it's peak
-Pax Sinica
-Low economic inflation

Song Dynasty
-Followed the Tang
-The use of paper money
-The introduction of tea drinking
-The inventions of gunpowder, the compass, and printing
-Distinguished by enormous commercial growth

Economy of China
-China was the worlds largest economy followed by India and France

-The territorial domain of the Qing empire greatly increased during this period.

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-A high demand for the Chinese products of porcelain and tea made Qing China the largest market for Spain’s silver exports from her colonies in South America.

-The seclusion of China on a world-scale grew to its peak during the Ming Dynasty after the Yung-lo emperor's reign in the 1400s.

-The Four Modernizations were the goals of Deng Xiaoping’s reforms. They were first introduced by Zhou Enlai in 1975 at the Fourth National People's Congress in one of his last public acts.
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-After his and Mao's death, Deng Xiaoping assumed control of the party in late 1978.

-In December 1978 at the Third Plenum of the 11th Central Committee, Deng Xiaoping announced the official launch of the Four Modernizations, formally marking the beginning of the reform era.

The four modernizations

-The Four Modernizations were designed to make China a great economic power by the early 21st century.

-These reforms essentially stressed economic self-reliance.

-The People's Republic of China decided to accelerate the modernization process by stepping up the volume of foreign trade by opening up its markets, especially the purchase of machinery from Japan and the West.

-By participating in such export-led growth, China was able to speed up its economic development through foreign investment, a more open market, access to advanced technologies, and management experience.