• published more then 70 books of political essays, philosophy and drama
  • Made frequent targets of the clergy, the aristocracy and the government
  • His sharp tounge made him enemies at the French court and send him to jail twice

John locke-

  • Held a more positive view of human nature
  • He believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves
  • As reasonable beings they had the natural ability to govern their own affairs and to look after the welfare
  • According to Locke all people are born free and equal with three natural rights life liberty and property



  • Jean Jacques rousseau was committed to individual freedom
  • He won lots of recognition as a writer of essays
  • Rousseau argued “civilization corrupted people’s natural goodness, “Man is born and everywhere he is in chains


Mary Wollstonecraft-

  • She was the most persuasive women during the enlightenment and published an essay called A Vindication of the rights of woman in 1792
  • Argued that woman like men need education to become virtuous and useful
  • She believed that woman should be given the right to enter the male-dominated fields of medicine and politics


Old Regime
1st Estate- owned 10 percent of the land
they provided education and relief services to the poor and contributed about 2 % of its income to the government

2nd Estate- Were the rich nobles
only accounted for 2 percent of the population
owned 20 % of the land and payed no taxes

3rd Estate-97% of the population
first group the middle class or bourgeoisie were bankers factory workers merchants professionals and skilled artisans
often very well educated and belived strongly in the enlightenment ideas of liberty and equality
paid very high taxes
lacked privelges

second group which were the poorest within the 3rd estate
these people were trades people apprentices laborers and domestic servants


The forces of change
A weak leaders
economic troubles- lots of taxes made it hard to conduct profitable business in france
the cost of living rose
crop failures resulting in the severe shortage of grain
Helping in the American Revolution put france in debt
banks refused to lend money

King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette:
He paid little attention to government advisors and had lil patience for the details of governing
The queen interfered in government business and offen gave THe KIng bad advice
They would rather go out and spend money on gowns, jewels, gambling, and gifts instead on the people

Revolution Begins:
The third Estate delgates names themsleves the National Assembly and they passed laws and made reforms in the name of the french people

3 days later the Third Estate found themsleves locked out of their meeting room and they broke down the tennis court door and in there they created a new constitution called the tennis court oath
After hearing tis Louis XVI stationed his army in and around versailles

The 3rd estate thought that king louis was palnning on ending the national assembly so they broke into a paris prison on july 14th and took gun powder and weapons
The fall of the bastile became known has a great symbolic act by the french people

The great fear had peasants panicing all over france
armed with pitch forks and farm tools they broke into nobles manor houses and destroyed the old legal papers that bound them to pay fuedal dues


-Military genius rose from Military General to seize control of France in a Coup d’etat. Napoleon was born in Corsica 1769.

· Emperor 1799-1815
· Napoleonic code: a uniform set of laws that limited liberty and promoted order and authority over individual rights.
· Plebiscite: vote of the people
· Lycees: government run schools
· Concordat: agreement w/church, Napoleon higher than church.
· Bank of France: improved the French economy, by taxes from everyone, and loans to businesses


Invasion of Russia
· Scorched Earth Policy- which Russians burned everything to leave for the enemy to eat.
· Depleted Napoleons Army.
· Blockade, Continental system in order to destroy Great Britain commercial and industrial economy.
· The great nation took him out of power in the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium
· Napoleon was shipped to St. Helena in exile and died 1821.

Congress of Vienna

-Series of meetings in Austria Vienna, for long lasting peace and stability by the Balance of Power
· The meeting were led by the Five great powers in Europe Russia, Austria, Prussia, France, and Great Britain…..main leader Metternich ruler of Austria

1. Balance of Power- No country be a threat to another
2. Containment Of France- Make every country around France strengthened
3. Legitimacy- Rulers that Napoleon driven from there throne back to power (Spain, Italy)


-Pride is ones country: which include culture, territory, national language, religion
Germany Unification
-Led by Bismarck (IRON CHANCELLOR)
· Bismarck’s policies Blood & Iron- to do everything through war.
· Real Politik- (politics of reality) to what it takes
· First. Bismarck gained Schlewig from the Danish war
· Then. He gained Holstein from the Austro War
· Finally. Bismarck Franco War which he started and gained Alsec Lorein
· 1871 Germany unifies

Italy Unification
Geographic Expression
-Led by Mazini- The Soul
Cavour- The Brain
Garibaldi- The Sword
· Manzini failed to attempt to unify italy with Yopung Italy
· Cavour arranged a defense agreement w/ Sardinia & France
· Austria forced out of North of Italy
· Garibaldi led the Red Shirts and takes the Papal States and pushes from the South
· Austria gives Venetia
· Pope loses and Italy takes Rome.
· 1870 Italy unifies


Agricultural Revolution
-Early 1700s technology revolution in Farming. During the 18th and 19th centuries, England experienced a period of agricultural growth.
· Crop Rotation- Stopped fallow field system, plant different crops for fertile soil.
· Enclosure Movements- All peasants cannot survive, go to cities and parliament made laws to take land from peasants and put them to work on the land.
· New machines Jethro Seed Drill, reapers, threshers, plant seeds faster than cattle.
· New Crops- maize, potato.....As which made the Population sky rocket.

cooltext420500488[1].gifThe Industrial Revolution was a enormous movement that started in the late 18th century and 19th century because of the former Agricultural Revolution.

  • Manual Labor/Animal Labor was replaced with trains and if you were very fortunate to use cars.

  • Steam Power was introduced instead of using coal.

  • More workers were available thanks to the Agricultural Revolution, there was more food and with more food the population increased.

  • Textiles could be made quicker and in greater bulk because of new inventions like the spinning mule and cotton mills.


The Iron Industry boomed as well.

But with so many positives, there were bound to be negatives.
Particularly with young children.

Children as young as 6 worked in factories for up to 14 hours or more a day.
Small kids were forced to work in dangerous areas to earn money to feed their families. It was not uncommon that fatal injuries occurred during this time.

Even punishments were taken to the extreme i.e. “weighting” a form of discipline when a child would wear a heavy weight on their neck for up to an hour.

It wasn’t until the Factory Act of 1833 that conditions improved.


Imperialism ( 1870s -1960s)

The term Imperialism is defined as ruling over a specific area(s) to secure purposes for a single state.

Britain’s success during Imperialism was brought on due to the Industrial Revolution.

Poems and Songs were introduced to explain why the British felt they needed to take over countries that they didn’t seem fit to govern themselves. A good example of this is the “White Man’s Burden.

“Take up the White Man's burden--And reap his old reward:The blame of those ye better,The hate of those ye guard--The cry of hosts ye humour(Ah, slowly!) toward the light:--"Why brought he us from bondage,Our loved Egyptian night?"

Two of the most notorious places that Britain conquered were Africa and India.

“Scramble for Africa”

The Berlin Conference was an important meeting that took place during 1884 that described what portions of Africa certain European countries would be receiving.Britain, along with other countries at the time, needed to find a new source of trade due to a growing deficit that was beginning to emerge. Also, white imperialists needed a new available working population for their colonies in the New World.

For most of the 19th century India was ruled by India. It was considered “ the jewel in the crown” of all the colonies in the British Empire because of it’s immense amounts of natural resources.

INC- The Indian National Congress had one goal. To have more of a say in the way that India was governed.
Sepoy Mutiny- when thousands of sepoys ( Indian soldiers) decided to rebel against the British because of extreme racial tensions driven by the British and casings on cartridges that contained cow and pig fat. Two meats that Indians and Muslims do not eat.


The end of WW2 was also a major part of why India became independent relatively quickly.

Spheres of Influence in China

When: late 19th-early 20th century

Why: Britain’s victory during the infamous Opium Wars led to the formation of the Spheres of Influence. Even though the Chinese were divided into separate colonies, they still maintained their sovereignty.


Irish Potato Famine(1840s-1852)

Because Ireland was a British colony, it was used for one sole purpose. And that was to produce cash crops. They weren’t allowed to eat most the food they grew. An exception to this would have to be the potato.


This crop was VERY important. Because this crop became infected, approximately one million of the population died and another one million emigrated from Ireland.

Militarism- Europe had not experienced a major war in several decades, and it was prime time for a big fight. The Prussians established a very large and powerful army, and Russian mobilization lead to them throwing the first strike through Belgium

Alliances- The complex of alliance between the powers in Europe lead to each nation being dragged into the conflict to honor its alliances; on one side were France, England, and Russia, on the other were Germany, Austria, and Italy

Nationalism- The people of European nations prioritized the glory of their nation, and wanted dominance.

Imperialism- Competition on a global scale for imperial dominance also lead to minor conflicts between European powers, and set the stage for WWI

Assasination- Gavrillo Princip, a Serbian member of the Black Hand, a terrorist nationalist group assassinated Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria providing the spark that ignited the bomb of WWI

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German Schlieffen Plan:
· Defeat France in 6 weeks
· Hold off Russia which was estimated to take 6 months to mobilize
· Invade France through Belgium to outflank the French

Why it Failed:

· The Belgians put up strong resistance
· The Russians mobilized with great speed, drawing German troops and supplies to the Eastern Front
· The French counter-attack at the Marne stopped the German advance to Paris

Treaty of Versailles:
· German territory was ceded to allies
· Germany blamed with “war guilt”
· Limitations were put on the German army and navy
· The Rhineland was demilitarized and occupied
· German was forced to pay indemnities of $33 billion

· Over 10 million casualities
· End to Russian, German, Austrian, and Ottoman empires
· Creation of poor, weak, and diverse nations in Eastern Europe
· Establishment of Communism in Russia
· The enmity of the German people

1917- October Revolution: Bolshevik Party under Lenin and his slogan of “peace, land, and bread” seized control of the government of Russia, and established the dictatorship of the proletariat under the Vanguard of the Bolshevik party. Russia falls to communism and withdraws from WWI.
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Economic Depression:
New technology and consumer goods became available after WWI, and many things were bought on credit. When people could not afford to finish paying for what they bought, the economies collapsed. The United States was investing in Europe and keeping their economies relatively functional, but after our stock market crash, we withdrew our investments in Europe to fix our state, leaving Europe bankrupt.

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Anticommunist fascism seized power in Western European Nations fearing a communist revolution in the economic depression, Germany in Particular.