Europe as the second-smallest continent ,is a connection of peninsula of eurasian land's bordered on the north by the Barents Sea, west by the Atlantic Ocean, and south by the Mediterranean Sea

Ancient greece
geography: -it consisted mainly of a mountainous peninsula jutting out into Mediterranean sea .
- numerous islands (around 3,000),
- Greece has more than 15,000 kilometres of coastline and a land boundary of 1,160 kilometres.
-About 80% of Greece consists of mountains or hills
-About 50% of Greek land is covered by forests

-depended clearly on farming,
-had an aristocracy based on ownership of large estates
- many farmers were independent, owning their plots of land
- the Greek economy evolved, particularly as trade rose and cities grew.

litterature and art/archictecture
:-created literature such as poetry, tragedy, comedy, and history,
-created masterpieces that have inspired, influenced, and challenged readers to the present day.
-greek language was derived from the Phoenician alphabet
-They developed three architectural systems, called orders, each with their own distinctive proportions and detailing. The Greek orders are: Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian
Sculpture includes small figurines and life-size statues, but also relief sculptures which were on the sides of buildings, and also tombstones

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-Encompasses the collection of beliefs and rituals practiced in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
-Different groups varied enough so that one might speak of
Greek religions or "cults", though most shared similarities.
-recognized the 14 major gods and goddesses
-religious practices of the Greeks extended beyond mainland Greece



Rome grew from small settlement to a mighty and civilization that conquered .In time the Romans built on of the most famous and influence empire in history. Government:
    • -a republic government
    • -3 part: executive
    • legislative
    • judicial
    • -legal code is the twelve table ; the basic of roman legal system
    • -strong army: all citizens who owed a land required to serve on their army
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Economy :
    • -mostly trade
    • -a lot natural resources such as fruits
    • -paid taxes on food and others things

Early Christianity and its risei -it grew because :-embraced all people,men,women,poor and rich
gave hope to powerless
-offered a personal relationship with a loving god
- promised eternal life after death
Rise of Christianity cause :
- jewish rebellion

-persecution of christians
The Fall of ROME
-government weakness
- economic problem: balance of trade deficit
-huge gap between rich ad poor people
-breakdown of labor force
-decline of Patriotism
-military upheaval

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The byzantine empire
    • Constantinople was the political center of the Empire

The decline of the empire

    • after justian the emperor death ,there were street riot , religious quarrels , palca intrigues and foreign danger
    • spreading of bubonic plague
    • foreign invasion east and west of the empire
    • the division of the church into roman catholism and eastern orthodoxy



The Renaissance and the Age of Discovery and the New World

explorers share the Renaissance spirit that appears in the works of artists, scholars, and writers of the period.

· The contribution of the printing press to the development of intellectual life.·The impact of the great explorers on intellectual life.

  • aspects of European humanism.·European reaction to the inhabitants of newly discovered areas of the world.·Art such as paintings and sculptures portrayed individuals and nature more realistic and life like· People questioning political and structures and religious practices.

The Reformation

· Protestant Reformation arises as many Europeans, particularly in cities, look for new forms of piety and worship.

· Financial and economic bases of the new states.

· The changing economy of the sixteenth century.

· Protestant reformers reacted to the Catholic church's popular, institutional piety.

· Protestantism was suited to the urban bourgeoisie.

· painters portrayed the relationship between everyday life and the sacred.

· Countermeasures taken by the Catholic church during the Counter-reformation.

The Wars of Religion and The Rise of Trading Cities

wars between Protestants and Catholics,while trading begins to transform European politics and economics.

Causes and results of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century religious civil wars.

international politics complicated the religious civil wars.

The importance of politics as statesm

The most important cities and trade routes to the European economy.

the special qualities of art produced in trading cities.

The major scientific discoveries of the period.


The Age of Absolutism and the Social Contract

Causes of political weakness in France during the first sixty years of the seventeenth century.

Attempts by French statesmen to end political disorder.

The changing status of French nobility during the seventeenth century.

art and architecture reflected political authority.

Moral and political aspects of seventeenth-century French tragedy.

The outcome of the conflicts between Parliament and the English crown.

Hobbes and Locke reflect the political events of their times.

The Enlightenment and Enlightened Despots

      • -philosophers argue that the dignity of man can best be raised through practical knowledge and reform
-The relationship between warfare and economic growt-The rise of major European powers..

-The rococo style was a reaction against the more ponderous style of Louis XIV.