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Treaty of Nanking

-a treaty ending the First Opium War between the British and Qing Empire -forced China to lower tariffs

-attempted to abolish monopoly of foreign trade -Qing government had to pay:

  • 6 million dollars for the confiscated Opium
  • 12 million dollars for the cost of the war
  • 3 million to compensate for debts

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Taiping Rebellion

    • revolt in china from 1850-1864

    • 1850 organized an army led by Hong Xiuquan

established Taiping Heavenly Kingdom

    • tried to institute social reforms:

      • separation of the sexes

      • prohibiting foot binding

      • ending private trade

      • replacing Buddhism &Confucianism with a form of Christianity

    • Taiping areas constantly bothered by Qing army

    • Estimated 20-30 million people died

    • 1853-City of Nanjing captured and declared capital


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-Countries took advantage of China’s unresolved internal issues and attacked -brought their influence

and economic control along with

them



Dowager Empress Cixi


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Empress Dowager
    • The Empress Dowager Cixi had reigns of power from 1862-1908,
    • she believed in traditional style of rule
    • Created reforms such as improving education and setting up factories to build steam powered boats, ammunition and rifles.
    • Empress Dowager was in power of China from 1861-1908

Open Door Policy


-The Open Door Policy was made to give any country the rights to set trade in china, but China could not become a colony
-This was effective but the country was subjected to foreign rule
-High economic tensions rose
-The European countries took advantage of the Chinese
- Opium War (1839-1842) was a resulted in this because British were selling illegal opium to china's people
-The Open Door Policy Failed due to the fact that China became industrialized by all of the foreign influences in China
-Boxer Rebellion

Guangxu
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Guangxu

    • Guangxu was a young emperor who brought an idea of modernizing China (February 25, 1875- November 14, 1908)
    • The ideas of modernizing did not work out and frustration was built in the eyes of the Chinese people.
    • He initiated the Hundred Days Reform
    • Hundred Days Reform-104 day national cultural, political, and educational reform movement from June 11-September 21, 1898
    • Hundred Day Reform was a failure

Boxer Rebellion

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Boxer Rebellion

• Finally the Boxer Rebellion happened because of foreigners
• poor peasants and merchants wanted the privileges that foreigners had
• Chinese made a secret group called the Society of Righteous and Harmonioust Fists or the Boxers
• Spring 1900- Boxers marched to Beijing and surrounded the city
•Boxers went to kill foreigners, Chinese Christians, and missionaries
• They kept the city under siege for several months
• August: a multinational army of 19,000 troops and defeated the boxers
•China had to pay taxes for the Western Nations sending troops--$1million per country
•This greatly weakened the Qin Dynasty which lead to the 1911 Revolution against them lead by the nationalist group called the Kuomintang

Dowager Empress


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Empress Dowager

• 1905 Dowager Empress sent officials to check out other types of governments
• 1906 they suggested change in the structure of government
• Reforms started…but were not effective when internal and external problems flourished


Sun Yixian
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Sun Yixian
• Sun Yixian leader of the Nationalist Party
• In 1911 overthrew the Qing Dynasty which was in power since 1644
• 1912 Sun Yixian became first President of China’s republic

•Kuomintang was Yixian's official party
• 1916 civil war broke out, territories were owned by military leaders and war lords
•Sun Yixian was fighting a civil war and a war against Japan
•This greatly weakened the Nationalist party's army
•He succeeded his power to Yuan Shikai who lasted for about 3 months
•After this he tried to revive the monarchy with him being "The Great Emperor of China"

Mao Zedong raises a communist nation


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The Long March

-Long march- Group of chinese communists led by Mao Zedong that traveled 6000 miles across china to rise a communist regime.
-Led to civil war in china during 1930’s. Led to an easy take over for the japanese and the rape of Nanking.


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Mao Zedong

-Mao Zedong and communists win war in 1949 and china is officially communist.
-China expanded into Mongolia,Tibet and India.
-Mao controlled 70 percent of farm land 10 percent of rural communities and he eventually made farmers go on collective farms.

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economic progress
”The Great Leap Forward”
- Forcing people into larger government ran collective farms. Attempted to industrialize china by making people move from their rural areas to a more urban setting to fuel industrialization. Another plan was to encourage increasing the population of china which he later figured out would hurt china because the more people in a communist government the more responsibility the government has to take care of those people.
-This was a great leap backwards because it made people not want to work as hard when they can not work for themselves or work where they want to work..

-Cultural revolution- Goal was to make all peasants and workers equal under the same social structure.
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great leap foward
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Zhou Enlai(left) and Richard Nixon(right)
-New power named Zhou Enlai became worried of losing communist support so in an effort to raise the economy he opened his doors to the US during Nixon's term
-1979 the chinese and US established diplomatic relationships

"Deng Xiaoping"

-"Massacre at Tiananmen Square"- People mostly were protesting out against the communist party and Deng Xiaoping himself. So Deng Xiaoping sent in the army ordering break the protest up no matter the cost
-Almost all the people leave besides 5000 brave people. Here they revealed the statue called “Goddess of Democracy”
-The army fired into the crowd and killed almost 1000 students
-No one ever spoke out against the communist government ever again

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Zemin(left) and Xiaoping(right)

-Deng Xiaoping finally died in 1997 after stepping out of the spotlight in 1995 and communist party general secretary Jiang Zemin took control of the presidency
-Zemin resigns in 2002 and gives up the presidency to his successor Hu Jintao. He also believes in a semi free market like Jiang.

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Hong Kong from an arial view
-Hong Kong was finally released from colonial rule under England in 1997 and the Chinese promised to let them continue their free market ways for at least 50 years.
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Summer olympics(Matt DeBlasio is better than phelps)
-China is attempting to show the world they are changing but slowly. An example of this was a successful summer olympics in Beijing in 2008.