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General Facts about India

  • The capital of India is New Delhi.

  • The official languages are Hindi and English.

  • The current president is Pratibha Patil.

  • They have an estimated 1.15 billion people in India.

  • The have had their independence since August 15 1947

  • They have been a republic since January 26 1950

  • It was nicknamed the "Jewel in the Crown".

  • The British originally took over India in 1786.

  • India is the largest Democratic Country.

  • It is estimated that in upcoming years India will surpass China with the largest population in the world.



Mughal Empire

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Key terms
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Jizya-a tax on the non-Muslims







The purple is the original Mughal empire, the red was added by Akbar & the pink by Aurangzeb















Reasons for The Mughal Empire
s collapse



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The Sikh Empire

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East India Company

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  • Mughal Empire began decline after 1707 due to over expansion, decentralized state, and local power increasing.

  • During this time religious identity did did not go with polotical identity.

  • Early on British were involved in coastal trade.

  • The original Charter was granted in 1600 by Queen Elizabeth.

  • The company was run by a Governor and 24 directors from its stockholders.

  • The company was originally formed to share in the Indian spice trade.

  • The Spice trade was controlled by Spain and Portugal until the British were able to destroy the Spanish Armada.

  • India was seen as great colony for producing raw materials to be processed in the industrial power of England.

  • The company ruled India directly.


  • They were interested in the trade of Tea, Jewels and Fabrics from India.


  • Had own private army.


  • Had the ability to arrange treaties.

  • Were given original permission to trade from the Mughals, but as the Mughals weakened the British and french looked to make gains in India.

  • In 1757 at the Battle of Plessy Robert Clive beat the French forces which secured company rule in India for the next 90 years. `
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  • After the Seven Years War it left the British with no one to compete with for trading in India effectively setting up a monopoly in India trade.

  • When the Mughals collapsed they left things divided and unorganized.

  • The British used the divide and conquer strategy when taking over India.

  • The more and More of India the company controlled the less effective its rule was. They were unable to alleviate the Bengal famine in which one third of that local population died which came out to about 10 million people.

  • The companies monopoly on trade in India was outlawed in 1813.

  • The company also lost its monopoly on Chinese trade in 1833.

  • The company took 10.5 percent of Indian revenue until 1858 when the Sepoy Mutiney occurred.

  • Due to the Sepoy Mutiny Queen Victoria passed the Government of India act in 1858 which dissolved the East India Company. She also made herself Empress of India being crowned by Disraeli the Prime Minister of the time.
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  • The 24,000 troops in the East India Companies army were put into the English army.

  • She added a new post of Viceroy of India.

  • The viceroy stopped land expansion had more religious tolerance as well as allowed Indians into civil service.




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Sepoy- Indian soldier hired by the East India Company to fight as for the British needs.

Causes

  • New weapons caused rebellion.

  • The ammunition to these new weapons was greased with animal fat.

  • According to Muslim religion the pig is a disgusting animal and Hindus believe the cow to be sacred.

  • Also many Indians believed that the British were trying to convert them to Christianity.

  • The Indians also were against the common racism put against them by the British.

  • It was said once that the East India Company's army was " a delicate and dangerous machine, with little management it may easily turn against us"

  • Indians that would not use the ammunition that was greased in pig and cow fat were arrested.

  • The fighting began in an area called Meerut.

  • The Sepoy's went and killed every European man, woman and child they could find.

  • Fighting lasted a year.

  • 3 centers of fighting where in Maratha, Delhi and Lucknow.
  • The fighting did not spread South because ruler was local to that area.

  • British found several Native allies.

  • The British very Violently put down the rebellion.Indian_Rebellion_Hangings.gif
  • This lead to a sharp rise in Indian Nationalism.

  • Was known Indians First War of Independence.

  • During the fighting Both armies tried to slaughter the other army

  • After the rebellion from when the Sepoys refused to use the ammunition with animal fat in them they marched to the city of Delhi. There they met up with other Indians and took over the city.

  • Problem for the Indians remained was when the Sikhs would not fight for the Indians due to the fact that they did not want the Mughal empire to return fought with the British against the Sepoys.

  • The Hindus also did not want the Mughal empire to return as the empire was a Muslim one.

  • The British re-organized their army to make army ration 2:1 British to natives.

  • People who choose to fight for the British were rewarded after the war.

  • The crown allowed for projects to continue as it increased its power.

  • The fighting did not spread South because ruler was local to that area.

  • Britain found several Native allies.

  • The British very Violently put down the rebellion.
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India was a colony of Britain making it a ally power
Indian troops fought in South East Asia and North Africa
Helped stop the Japanese army in Central Asia
The Indian National Congress opposed Fascism and Nazism
Because of hypocrisy Britain declared India in the war(1939)
Indian army had 2.5 million soldiers





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  • Gandhi was born on 2 October 1869

  • He was most well know for his role in getting Independence from Britain

  • Fought against the apartheid in South Africa before returning to India.
  • In 1919 Gandhi starts to demand a national movement for Independence in India.


  • The Amritsar Massacre was proof of the British brutality and showed the Indians like they were being oppressed as they were killed in a peaceful protest.

  • In 1920 Gandhi became leader of the Indian National Congress.

  • Protested through the process of Satyagraha which means to protest peacefully.


Event
How Protested using Satyagraha

Salt March
Protested by massive amounts of people walking hundreds of miles to prove
to the British that they don't need them. It was an attack against the Tax on salt.

Swadeshi movement
Protested threw the boycott of foreign made products especially British made to try and hurt
the British economy
.

Rowlatt Acts
Protested acts passed by the British, was protested by massive closings of factories and offices
and also people were encouraged to leave Raj sponsored programs.


  • Gandhi would fast if His people protested in a violent matter until they would stop.

  • British had a monopoly on the salt trade in India.

  • The British left India in 1947.

  • The first Prime Minister was Jawaharial Nehru.



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  • Gandhi started a major fast when the Hindus and Muslims were moving in the partition of India due to the great amount of fighting that took place then.

  • Gandhi had several attempts against his life. He was however assassinated on January 30 1948 by Nathuram Godse as he walked up to Gandhi and shot him several times at point blank range.

  • Gandhi was assassinated because some of the Hindu extremists thought he was too soft with the Muslims.

  • After his assassination Nathuram Godse was hanged on November 15 1949.
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The site where Gandhi's remains lay.


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Causes:


· Britain was leaving India (not by choice)

· Muslim & Hindu population were not getting along

· Mohammed Ali Jinnah wanted separate countries for the Hindu & Muslim Pop.

· The British government really pushed for it

· India was divided into West Pakistan, India,
and East Pakistan





Results

· Over 15 million people migrating at once
· During the move around ½ million murdered
· The movers were
o Homeless
o Without food
o & jobless





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vStill had close relations with the Soviet Union
vDescribed as “history’s biggest peace movement”
vIndia followed Non-Alignment(term created in 1954) movement
vPrime Minister Nehru of India was one of the creators of the 5 principles of Non-Alignment
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  • Indira Gandhi was born 19 November 1917

  • Her father was Jawaharial Nehru.

  • She has no relation to Gandhi, she married Feroze Gandhi.

  • She worked when she started into politics as her fathers assistant.

  • When her father died in 1964 she went into the government and became in charge of the ministry of information and broadcasting.

  • She was elected to Prime Minister in 1966.
  • She started India's nuclear program in 1967

  • She moved India closer to the Soviet Union then to the United States due to the fact that she and Richard Nixon greatly disliked each other.

  • Due to minor electoral rules she was removed from office and barred from running again for 6 years.
  • However she refused to give up her seat and declared a sate of emergency and arrested members of the opposition.

  • Feeling very secure she ordered an election to prove the people liked her and she was voted out in 1977.

  • She was reelected in 1980
  • In 1984 She had problems with Sikh terrorists. They were using the golden temple as a safe haven. She sent in troops to remove them which is still rated as a highly controversial choice.

  • Due to the attack of a Sikh shrine and holy place they pledged revenge and got it when 2 of her Sikh bodyguards shot and killed her.


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IndiraGandhi's body lying in state.




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  • Rajiv Gandhi was born in 1944.

  • He was the son of Indira Gandhi.

  • He became a political adviser to his mother in 1981.

  • When his mother died in 1984 he became Prim Minister.

  • He was Prime Minister from 1984-1989.

  • He was responsible for leaning away from the socialism from his mother and getting closer ties to
  • the United States.

  • He had a very good reputation until the Bofors scandal ruined that.

  • Because of this scandal Gandhi and his party were voted out in 1989 in a landslide loss.

  • Gandhi continued to try and reclaim his political career and was killed while campaigning in 1991 by a suicide bomber.





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Since the Partition of India, Pakistan and India have had many problems:
vIndo-Pakistan War of 1947(First Kashmir War)
causes




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vIndo-Pakistan War of 1965-started by an attack launched on Pakistan to infiltrate Kashmir and Jammu

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-East Pakistan was breaking away from Pakistan, while Pakistan was ethnically killing in Bangladesh, India interfered for human rights
§1,000,000-3,000,000 Bangladesh casualties
vIndo-Pakistan War of 1999(Kargil War )-2nd most recent war with nuclear weapons, fought in Kashmir
vAttack on the Indian Parliament in 2001, blamed by India on the Pakistan-based terrorist groups Lashkar-e-Toiba and Jaish-e-Mohammed
vIn November of 2008 there was a terrorist attack on Mumbai



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Since 23 July, 1983 Sri Lanka has been in sporadic civil war
Sri Lankan Tamil nationalists Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam(LTTE) and the Sri Lankan Military were fighting
India became more prominent with help
India Air Force dropped food for the people
India wanted to make a peacekeeping organization(Indian Peace Keeping Force) in Sri Lanka
Indo-Sri Lankan Accord was signed in 1987 to relieve Sri Lanka of war
The Sinhalese grew to hate the Indian presences in Sri LankaIPKF fought to destroy the LTTE
LTTE agreed then to sign the peace agreement, they surrendered arms
December 1989-Prime Minister V. P. Singh ordered the IPKF out
§Causalties:
-1100 Indian soldiers
-Over 5000 Sri Lankans

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Kashmir was partitioned in 1947 because of the Indian Independence act

65% given to India
35% given to Pakistan


  • Tensions increased between the two because of nuclear testing in 1998, used to demonstrate strength

  • Maharaja Hari Singh(ruler) wanted Kashmir to stay independent Kashmir then combined with India because of promises of military support and referendum on independence

  • 1947-1948 Pakistan went to war with India for control

  • Peacekeeping forces were sent in from the U.S. to keep control up until recently

  • Even with the peacekeeping forces another war broke out in 1965

  • The second war led to a peace agreement, the LOC(Line of Control) a cease-fire line

  • Pakistan, Iran & Afghanistan spread influence and manipulate Kashmir

  • Kashmir claims that ethnic cleansing is being used there by Pakistanis to clear of Hindus


Kashmir's Factions :

1.Hizbul Muhajideen - pro-Pakistan rebels, oldest active group.

2. Lashkar-e-Toyeba - Sunni Islamists, including fighters from outside Kashmir

3.Harkut-ul-Muhajideen - a coalition of factions including Kashmiris, Afghanis, and Arab fighters

4. Tehreek-e-Jehad- a new organization of uncertain origins, membership and goals

5.Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front (JKLF) - a pro-independence group of declining influence





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ØThey have had bad feelings since 16th century

ØThere was small period of peace when the Mughals took over

Ø
In the end of the 17th century this stopped with the harsh Muslim rule:

§The Hindus were abolished
§Taxes were put on Hindus
§Hindu temples were destroyed
§Forced Hindus to convert to Islam

ØAfter the Mughal fell and the British took control both Muslims and Hindus fought a nonviolence movement together

ØIn the 1930’s Muslim leaders felt Indian national congress was controlled mostly by Hindus

§Muslims felt that to protect their heritage they would need their own state
§Jinnah ruled the Muslim league (Muslim political party) wanted their own state of Pakistan
§1946- demanded their own Muslim state
§14 August, 1947-Pakistan celebrated its independence along with India the day after, after extremely violent clashes between the two

ØEven with the new state fighting continued for decades

§6 December, 1992-Babri Masjid mosque(Ayodhya)-was destroyed by nationalistic Hindus
§Ethnic cleansing-Bangladesh-many people died that were Hindu, millions were killed


Nuclear Capability

· India & Pakistan both declared nuclear states.

· India and Pakistan both test their nuclear weapons in the Thar Desert (lies between India and Pakistan).

· Relations between Pakistan are tense, their testing of Nuclear weapons strikes fear into the rest of the world.

·
“If there is going to be a nuclear showdown, it’ll be between India & Pakistan”-Anonymous
· U. S. & India deal


o India must obey the Nuclear Weapons State obligations

o U.S. supplies India with its Nuclear energy Technology

o Unfortunately the deal has proven ineffective thus far.









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