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GEOGRAPHY

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Japan is an archipelago that consists of 4000 islands
Located on the East of China
The four distinct islands of Japan are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu.
Positioned on the Pacific Ring of Fire
85% Mountainous
Covered by forests
12% of land is suitable for farming
Temperate to sub tropic climate
Natural resources include:fish, oil, coal, iron, and minerals.
Effects of Geography
*Being surrounded by navigable rivers and having a large supply of natural resources led to trade and political unification.
*Japan was an island nation which influenced the growth of industrialization because Britain saw their potential in trade and in military terms.
*Most live on flat land and on the coast.

*Archipelago
- Allows Japanese to isolate themselves
-Difficult to conquer
-Water is important for trade and fishing
*Pacific Ring of Fire
- Earthquakes/Volcanoes
-Better housing


Religion
The main religion of feudal Japan was Shinto. Shinto worshippers believed there were spirits that dwelled in nature. These spirits were called Kami.


Culture Borrowing from China

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*During the 400's, Japan had contact with mainland Asia. Therefore, Japan was highly influenced by Chinese ideas and customs, which they learned through Korean travelers. Examples of important influences are...

System of Writing
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Government

Cooking
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Buddhism/Confucianism
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Tea Drinking
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Underline
Underline

The Heian Period(794-1185)
The Heian Period was known for its era of peace and tranquility. The movement of the imperial court to Heian and the development of the refined court society lead to the beginning of this period. There were many advancements that made this era more dominant than the others. For example..





Strong central government
Better role for women because women wrote many books, diaries, and poems. (Lady Murasaki wrote a masterpiece called "The Tale of Gengi")
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Music (Court Music called Gagaku)
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Literature and Art (Kana)
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Architecture (Temple building such as the Phoenix Hall in Boydoin
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Feudalism
*During this time, the power of the central government began to decline. Lords gained more power because small landowners and farmers gave land to the lords in exchange for protection. This lead to the beginning of feudalism.
*Feudalism is a political system based on exchanging loyalty for land.



FEUDAL SYSTEM OF JAPAN

Emperor
Divine ruler but does not hold all the power.
Shogun
Military leader

Daimyo/lords

Land owners/Nobles
Samurai
Warriors who protected the lords and their land. Followed a strict code of behavior called Bushido.
Peasants/Artisans
Provided agricultural production in exchange for protection
Merchants

Traders but considered unimportant because they did not "produce" anything.
Feudalism was the major political system of Japan until the Meiji Period began.



Meiji Restoration

Before Meiji Period
*During the early 17th century, Japan isolated itself from most nations of the world. Japan only traded with the Chinese and the Dutch from Indonesia. Japan believed this was the only way to create peace and prosperity for Japan. Japan's closed door policy came to an end when Commodore Matthew Perry entered Japan.

COMMODORE MATTHEW PERRY
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Commodore Perry brought four ships which astonished the Japanese.
Japan accepted Perry and the letter written by U.S President Fillmore which asked for free trade between the U.S and Japan.
Treaty of 1854 (Japan opened two ports at which the U.S could take supplies.
1860- Japan allowed foreigners to trade at several treaty ports.





Meiji Era

Emperor Matsuhito

external image japonemperadormeijiev4.jpg -Emperor Matushito is restored to power because the Japanese people were angry that the Shogun had given in to the foreigners demands.

-Matsuhito sent diplomats to Europe and North America to study the Western ways







NEW REFORMS OF MEIJI RESTORATION




End of Tokugawa Shogunate.
Samurai class was banned-->All classes are equal
Used Germany strong Centralized Government and Constitution
Admired British navy
Adopted American System of Education
Government built railroad line, factories, telegraph, and telephone speakers.
Government made new industries and technologies
The National Army
Practice religious toleration.
Sign unequal treaties with Western powers.
Others:Ballroom dancing, men cutting hair, and beef eating



JAPAN SEEKS AN EMPIRE
(1890-1945)



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 1890- Japan possesses dozens of warships, and 500,000 well-trained soldiers
Strongest military in Asia during this time period; gained military, political and economic strength

Will Result in:
WAR!!!!!!!!!!!
· 1876 Japan forces Korea to open three ports to trade with them

· Korea was important to China, Japan and China signed a hands-off agreement; neither would send army into Korea.



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Sino-Japanese War :
Japan takes China out of Korea. In 1895 Japan and China sign treaty; Japan obtains Taiwan and Pescadores Islands
Russo-Japanese War:
Russia fights Japan over Manchuria. Japan drives Russians out of Korea, overpowers Russia’s Baltic and Pacific Fleet


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1905-Japan and Russia sign Treaty of Portsmouth- gave Japan the captured territories and force Russia out of Manchuria and Korea

· 1907-Korean King gives up Korea, in 1910 Japan annexes Korea under their control.
· 1922- Japan signed an international treaty that agreed to honor China’s borders.

· 1928- Japan signs Kellogg-Briand Pact renouncing war.

· Japan’s government system (modeled after Parliament) had weaknesses


· During the Great Depression in 1929 - civilians blame the government and militarists win control of Japan with support of Japanese

· Military leaders make the emperor the symbol of power ; this wins popular support for army leaders


Japan wants to solve their economic issues through expansion of other countries. Japan plans a Pacific Empire that would give Japan raw materials and allow room for Japans increasing population

1931-Japan takes over Manchuria, army sets up puppet government


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· Japan leaves the League of Nations in 1933

· 1937- Japanese forces enter northern China. Japan seizes Beijing and Nanjing.





















WWII JAPAN

-Late 1800s-1900s-Japan is seriously devoid of natural resources
-They began looking overseas for goods
-American supplies are shut off from Japan so that Japan and China can mend hostilities
-1940-The US cracks Japanese communication system and found out plans for S.E. Asia
-December 1941-Americans in Hawaii wake up to Kamikaze pilots bombing ships in Pearl Harbor



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PEARL HARBOR Losses
19 damaged ships
-2300 Americans DEAD
-1100 wounded

--December 7, 1941 was really a "date which will live in infamy"-Roosevelt
-Japan also invades British colony of Hong Kong, Guam, Wake Island, and Thailand

-The Japanese turned interest towards the Philippines in 1942. (Filipino and Americans cannot win)

-In 1942, Japan had also taken: East Indies and Burma, the largest of Britain’s colonies.


-By the time Burma fell, nearly ONE MILLION SQUARE MILES had fallen under Japan (approx. 150 million people)

-The Japanese treated their colonies harshly

-Tried to win the support of Asians by the idea of "Asia for the Asiatics"
-the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere- idea that Japan should be free of all western influence.

-They made allied POWs go on long marches and executed them in harsh ways.


Here Come the Allies….



The BATTLE OF MIDWAY
(turning point)

-Japan wants to takeover Midway Island (important American Airfield on this island)
-Americans stopped attack by air force

-Allied spirits were raised (NATIONALISM)
-U.S. General Douglas MacArthur - "island hop" past Japanese islands to stop the Japanese.

Battle of Guadalcanal
the Japanese abandoned the island and "island hopping" proved a success.



Victory in the Pacific
-The U.S. had ended the war with Europe but was still fighting the Japanese in the Pacific.

- Japanese HAD stopped advancing.

-1944, the Allies landed on the Philippine island of Leyte.

-The Japanese made a plan to sink the American ships so they would stop advancing.




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-The Japanese navy lost horrendously.

-They then moved on to bring in the Kamikazes to sink the ships. (EFFECTIVE)

-1945: the Americans took the Japanese island of Iwo Jima.

-Advanced to Okinawa, where the Japanese put up a good fight, but lost the island anyway.

-The price paid? Japan lose 100,000 troops, the Americans lose 12,000 troops.




The BIG choice…
-the next stop for the U.S. fleets to island hop was to mainland Japan.


-President knew that invading the mainland Japan would cost him HALF A MILLION casualties.

- The A-bomb. Developed during the Manhattan Project was proved one of the most lethal weapons
-Bomb test in Mexico

So? To use or not to use?

-Truman gives the Japanese a stern warning about the weapon………There was no reply.


- August 6, 1945, the A-bomb was dropped on Hiroshima. 70,000-80,000 died INSTANTLY.

-three days later, the A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki. 70,000 were killed immediately.

- Radiation killed the others

-The Japanese had finally surrendered under Japanese foreign minister Mamoru Shigemitsu on behalf of the emperor to General Douglas MacArthur. The war had finally ended.

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Rebuilding Fallen Nations

-2 million Japanese lives losts



Geography
Hiroshima and Nagasaki become complete wastlands because of bombing
Demilitarization
Macarthur wants to disband the Japanese military
Democratization
Japan willingly accepts the fact that democratic ideas will be pushed into their society
Economy
General Macarthur did what he could to revive the Japanese economy, but he couldnt.
Emperor
Had to declare that he is NOT DEVINE, just a figurehead of the state
New Government
The DIET
New Rights
all citizens including WOMEN over 20 could vote
Bill of Rights
a constitutional bill of rights is placed in Japan
Article-9
the Japanese are NOT allowed to fight anymore, the US would protect Japan
Peace Treaty
The US and 47 other nations sign a peace treaty with Japan


-Enemies become Allies




MODERN JAPAN
(1947-PRESENT)


· Heisei period is the present era name in Japan. Started on January 8, 1989

·
Since 1947- Japan has practiced a constitutional monarchy with an emperor and elected Parliament, the Diet.

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· The Prime Minister of Japan leads the government. The Diet has the House of Representatives and House of Councilors
· 2007- Yasuo Fukuda becomes Prime minister of Japan after Shinzo Abe resigned.


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· Today, Japan has the second world’s largest economy and third largest in purchasing power.


· Japan has High Living Standards and has the longest life expectancy in the world.





· Japan keeps close economic and military relations with the United States, a key ally of Japan. Japan donated $ 8.86 billion to the U.S in 2004.


· Japan is the origin of the largest, leading and most technologically advanced producers of various technologies; such as motor vehicles, machine tools, ships, chemicals, textiles and electronic equipment

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· Japan has a low employment rate with about 67 million workers.


· Because of the shift in the demographic structure, social issues such as population decline are appearing with the new ideals.

· Earthquake tremors occur daily in Japan


· Japan is currently developing solutions against climate change and global warming. examples are reducing carbon dioxide emissions and reducing energy


· Leading nation in, technology, machinery and biomedical research


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