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BY: MEGHAN O'SHEA, SAMI COVELLO, ERDAL KADIOGLU, AND ARIELLE KOPPELL


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- The Crimean war was a war fought against the Russians on one side, and the Ottomans, French, British, and Sardinians.

-The war was fought over the unclaimed territories of the declining Ottoman Empire by the major powers.

-The war took place on the Crimean Penninsula which is located near Russia and Turkey on the border of the Black Sea.


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CRIMEAN WAR Q&A!!!

The Four Points of Vienna was a statement of British and French war aims.

*There were four peace attempts and all four were unsuccessful:

  1. Russia was to give up its protectorate over the Danubian Principalities.
  2. It was to abandon any claim granting it the right to interfere in Ottoman affairs on the behalf of the Orthodox Christians (in Greece.)
  3. The Straits Convention of 1841 was to be revised through the neutralization of the Black Sea.
  4. All nations were to be granted access to the Danube River (on the black sea.)
-What battles took place?
*The Seige of Sevastopol, the Azov Campaign, the Baltic Theatre, the Genitchi Strait, the Pacific, and Italian involvement.
-Who lost?
*The Russians.
-What were the end-of-the-war terms?
*Russia was not allowed a navy or military arsenal on Black Sea coast and had to recognize and respect the under-estimated Ottoman Empire.
-What were some of the things that made this war important?
*It was the first war that women worked as nurses for, railways and telegraphs were used for. Also, it led to the abolition of serfdom.

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Before:
~In the 1800s Russia had not lept into the modern industrialized world. The feudal system forced serfs to be tied to the nobles land. This prevented Russia from advancing economically. *Feudal System- a political system in which nobles are granted the use of lands that legally belong to their king, in exchange for their loyalty, military service, and protection of the people who live on the land.

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Reforms:
~ Peasant communities recieved half of the land of the original farm.
~ Political and social reform ended in 1881 when Alexander ll was assassinated.
~ Alexander lll later brought industrial changes to Russia.
~ Nationalism was the major drive throughout this period of reform.




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*Reason: rivalry between Russia and Japan for dominance in Korea and Manchuria.

*Result: Japan forced Russia to abandon its expansionist policy in the Far East, becoming the first Asian power in modern times to defeat a European power. This war took place during Japanese modernization.

*Treaty time!

~ Treaty of Portsmouth.

~ Terms: (by U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt), the defeated Russians recognized Japan as the dominant power in Korea.

~ Turned over Port Arthur, Liaotung Peninsula, and the southern half of Sakhalin Island, to Japan.

~ Both powers agreed to restore Manchuria to China.




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*In 1917, the Romanov czar gave up his power. This signified the end of czarist rule in Russia.
~Leading Cause: NATIONALISM!!!! Nationalism emerged in Russia in the 19th century creating ethnic unrest because they were so diverse. Because of this, the czar instituted a policy called Russification.
~Russification- the process of forcing Russian culture on all ethnic groups in the Russian Empire.

~Although they thought Russification would help, it strengthened nationalist feelings among ethnic groups and helped disunify Russia.


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*Reasons:

  1. Middle class and working class wanted a voice in the governement.
  2. City workers wanted better/safer conditions.
  3. Peasants wanted the nobles' fertile land.
  4. Russia had a losing military. Casualty rates increased.
  5. Soldiers recieved inadequate food, clothing, equipment, and unexperienced officers.
  6. Increasing prices of goods and food shortages.
  7. Ethnic groups wanted to end discrimination and Russification.

^this video shows Bloody Sunday(January 22,1905) which was when 200,000 workers and families marched to the czae's palace to ask for better conditions. The event soon turned into a blood bath with more than 100 killed.


*What they do:
  1. Peasants begin rioting.
  2. Workers go on strike.
  3. Civilians start demanding reform.
*Result:
  1. Communism prevails and Russia is renamed to USSR.
  2. Not only does communism arouse, but Russia establishes a socialist government.
  3. Education reforms--literacy rates soared.
  4. Industrial growth/economic development.
  5. Equal rights were granted to all nationalities.

Russia entered World War I in 1914 but was suffering as a country.
*STAGES OF THE RUSSIAN REVOLUTION! Brief History:

~THE MARCH REVOLUTION (MODERATE)

  • During this stage, people told the czar what they wanted.

~PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT( MARCH-NOV. 1917)
  • Temporary stage
  • By Democrat Prince George Lrov
  • Then, Moderate Socialist Alexander Kerensky
  • Temporarily guaranteed civil liberties, and freed political powers
  • However, serfs did not get the land they were promised, the army stayed at war, and not enough food was provided.
  • Soviets come power

How Marxism Influenced Lenin
KARL MARX (Germany)
VLADAMIR LENIN (Russia)
-Marxist Socialism
-Marxist-Leninism/Bolsheviks
Theory of history: cass struggle
No real Russian industrialism/capitalism
Revolution of Proletariat
Majority: peasants/feudal
Violent revolution
Elite vanguard must lead revolution
The First International
Revolutionaries would guide Russia through stages of industrialization.


~RADICAL STAGE (NOVEMBER REVOLUTION)
  • Communists and Bolsheviks (led by Lenin) defeated czarist rule
  • They achieved power by "Peace, Bread, and Land" slogan
  • WORLD WAR ONE: Lenin pulled Russia out of war with the Treaty of Brest-Livotsk, causing Soviet Russia to lose an immense amount of land including its Baltic provinces, the Ukraines, Finland, Byelorussia, and part of Transcaucasia. It was 1,300,000 square miles and provided for 62 million people of the population.


Bolsheviks gained power over the Mensheviks. The Bolsheviks were also referred to as the Red Army.

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-- Lenin has a stroke and Stalin becomes dictator in 1922.

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INTRODUCTION TO STALIN AND WHAT HE DOES FOR RUSSIA-
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*STALIN LED RUSSIA WITH TOTALITARIANISM.*


-Totalitarianism: a form of government in which the national government takes control of all aspects of both public and private life. This form of government usually only involves one ruler and involves terror, violence, and censorship to enforce rules.

-The Great Purge(1937):


^The Great Purge eliminated anyone who threatened his power. It ended in 1938 after having an estimated 8 million to 13 million people murdered.

-After the Great Purge, Stalin kept Russia on its feet the way he wanted by censoring newspapers, movies, radios, mail, ect. Children were taught communism in schools and any other religion was persecuted.

-In 1928, Stalin called for a command economy(gov't makes all economic decisions) to catch up on all the years of industrialization that they were behind in.

-Five Year Plans: plans outlined by Stalin for the delevopment of Soviet's economy. They set impossibly high quotas, to increase the ouput of steel, coal, oil, and electricity. To reach these goals, civilians would need to cut back which led to shortages of housing, food, clothing, and other necessities.



*The Five Year Plans included major industrialization but there was also an Agricultural Revolution going on in 1928.

  1. Small, private farms were rounded up into large, government owned farms called COLLECTIVE FARMS.
  2. Collective farms were used to produce foord for the state.
  3. Modern machinery boosted food production and reduced the number of workers.
  4. Kulaks, or rich peasants, didn't like collective farms and were killed if they resisted to work.



*Some positive things about Stalin's rule:
  • Womens roles expanded. They were also considered equal to men.
  • People became more educated and there was better schooling.
  • People learned new technological skills.
  • Medicine became popular. In fact, 75% of Soviet doctors were women.


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* As Hitler was gaining control over most lands in Europe, Stalin and Hitler met up to make a Non-Agression Pact. This Pact said that Germany and Russia would not attack each other during the war and to divide Poland, and allow Russia to take control of the Baltic countries after the war.

*Operation Barbarossa: Hitler breaks the pact!!!! He makes a suprise attack, or BLITZKREIG, on the USSR on September 1, 1939. German airplanes began bombing the capital(Warsaw) and troops moved in through the Polish border.

*In return to the attack, Stalin calls troops to annex the Baltic countries and had no trouble until FINLAND. They won, but lost a lot of men in the winter weather.



Soviet Propaganda against Germany Brief Summary of Operation Barbarossa
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INTRODUCTION TO THE COLD WAR


COLD WAR- A state of political tension and military rivalry between nothing that stops short of full-scale war, especially that which existed between the United States and Soviet Union following World War II.


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Iron Curtain


YALTA CONFERENCE (1945)

Chruchill, Roosevelt and Stalin all meet at Yalta.

*Reason - The conference was intended to discuss the re-establishment of Europe, and it's war-torn countries.




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Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin.


*Result - Berlin was divided into 4 sections. A section owned by Great Britain, a section owned by France, one by U.S., and the last by the Soviet Union. Germany was also divided into 2 halves(East and West). Lastly, Stalin promised to hold free elections.

Stalin breaks his promise.

By 1947, Most of eastern europe had become Soviet Satellites (buffer zones).

Churchill creates the imaginary line drawn at the borders of Communist East Europe and Democratic West Europe. This is called the IRON CURTAIN.


MARSHALL PLAN- Created by U.S.-
A plan to give money to all of Europe and rebuild their economies after WWII to help prevent the spread of communism.

COMECON - Council for Mutual Economic Assistance -
-Stalin's response to the U.S.'s Marshall plan. It is exactly like the Marshall plan, he promises to give billions to European countries to rebuild, and they turn communist.

Berlin Blockade - June 1948

For almost one year, Soviets blocked all land access from West Germany into West Berlin. So the allies flew supplies into West Berlin to help the people. Stalin seeing this, cancelled the blockade.

1949- NATO(North Atlantic Treaty Organization) is a military alliance between the United States, France, Britain, and Canada.

1949-The Warsaw Pact is created to counter the U.S's North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). The Warsaw pact has many of Eastern European countries signed to it, like Poland, Hungary, Romania and more.


The Arms Race Begins! - 1949

-The soviets develop and successfully test their first Atomic bomb.
-From that point on the US and the USSR were in a massive arms race, or who can make the most dangerous weapons the fastest.


1957 - Soviets launched Earth's first space satellite called the Sputnik. The U.S. feared that is was dangerous, but it wasn't.

1960- The U.S. sends a Spy plane called the U-2 to the USSR, the mission failed when it was shot down by the Soviets.


The Cold War and the Soviet Satellites

Poland-
1956- Workers went on stike demanding greater freedom, Khrushchev agreed to let the reforms to handle themselves as long as Poland stays communist and stays the Warsaw Pact.
1970's- More strikes errupt demanding for better living conditions and political and economic reforms.
SOLIDARITY - Workers group led by Lech Welesa
Hungary-
1956- students in favoring Democratic reforms started demonstrations, and Hungarian leaders theartened to leave the Warsaw pact. Soviet troops later invade Hungary and crushed all revolts.
Czechoslovakia-
Soviets invade Czechoslovakia in order to halt political liberzations.
Brezhnev Doctrine- Soviets have the right to crush any rebellion.


Berlin Wall - 1961

During 1940s through the 1950's 3 million people fled East Germany through Berlin. This was because all the people trapped in the communist side of Berlin wanted to go to the democracy side of Berlin. Khrushchev ordered an overnight construction of the Berlin wall to be built around West Berlin and trap all of the people in and keep the others out.

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Construction of the Berlin Wall.


CUBAN MISSLE CRISIS - 1962


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-Nuclear missles were secretly given to Cuba from the Soviet Union.
-American leaders soon found out and President Kennedy ordered a Naval Blockade of Cuba and threatened that the U.S. was going to invade Cuba if the missles weren't withdrawn.
- The world was very close to World War 3




SPACE RACE- technological race between the Soviet Union and the United States.

In the Soviet Union, there were forced labor camps referred to as gulags that killed millions of people.

COLD WAR PROPAGANDA (1950s): Communism vs. Capitalism; Cold War Summary
;
An interesting take on the war from the US perspective *This is a clip from the 1960 presidential debate in which JFK and Richard Nixon discuss the Cold War.

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CAUSES

  • Leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev
  • Openness to democratic ideas(glasnost)
  • Reshaping of the economy(Perestroika)
  • Economic problems-always a shortage of consumer goods
  • Nationalism-different ethnic groups wanted independence
  • Freedom movement in Eastern Europe
  • Gorbachev does not stop most of the rebellions that happen in Eastern Europe

1986 Chernobyl Nuclear Plant Accident- nuclear reactor accident in today's Ukraine

RESULTS**
    • Formation of the commonwealth of Independent States(CIS)
    • Boris Yeltsin becomes Russian President
    • Lost their role as a superpower
    • End of Cold War
    • Major economic problems in changing from a command to a market economy
    • Minority revolts and civil conflicts
    • Conflicts between pro-communist and pro-democracy groups