~Greece is located in southern Europe on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula
~Greece consists of many rugged and rocky mountain ranges.
~80% of Greece is mountains therefore making it one of the mountainous countries in Europe.
~Greece consists of the Pindus chain mountains which lie in the center of Greece


~Greece is a peninsula located in the Mediterranean Sea, and is basically surrounded by water.

~Greece has many islands scattered throughout the different seas.
Plains, Valleys, Hillsides
~Greece’s plains and hillsides are fertile and therefore good for agricultural purposes.
~Greece lands contained many natural resources.

Geography and History

~Polis’s were created throughout Greece due to the different geographical features.
~These polis’s consisted of an acropolis (fortified hill) at the center of the city.
~On top of the acropolis there would be a temple dedicated to one of the Greek gods (Zeus, Apollo, Athena, Aphrodite, Poseidon…).
~A market place would be held and located at the bottom of the acropolis. Here men would come to discuss public affairs.

~The two main city-states in Greece were Athens and Sparta.
~Due to lack of communication, each polis was very different from each other.
~Sparta was located on the Peloponnesus and Greece on central peninsula called Attica.

~Both cities put aside their differences to fight together in the Persian Wars. ~The Persian Wars consisted of three battles; The Battle of Marathon, The Battle of Thermopylae, and The Battle of Salamis.
~The Persians were the largest empire in the world. They had a large army to conquer land with.
~The Persian king, Darius invaded Greek city-states because he wanted to control the trade routes.


~Greeks needed food for the increasing population, so the polis sent men out to establish colonies in coastal areas around the seas.
~These colonies provided grain, mostly wheat and barley, and produced olives for oil and grapes for wine.
~The barren land of Greece made it difficult for people to survive.

~The Peloponnesian War, war between Athens and Sparta was a direct result of regionalism.
~Other city-states had to choose sides with Athens or Sparta. The geography of Athens and Sparta has shaped the different views on the issues.



~ India is a country in South Asia located on the Indian subcontinent.
~The Hindu Kush, Himalayas are the highest mountain ranges in India
~They mountains are located over the north border
~Mountains block the cold winds from entering India
india3.gif india2.jpg
Seasonal Winds
~Seasonal winds are called monsoons
~Monsoons provide rainy summers and dry winters


Rivers and Oceans
~ Ganges and Indus River provide fertile silt and irrigate
~India is surrounded by the Arabia Sea, Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal

Thar Desert:
Also known as the Great Desert - is the 7th largest desert in the world.
~ Water is scarce here.
~This desert provides protection from any invaders, hinders settlement, communication, and the building of infrastructures.


Indo-Gangetic Plains
The Indo-Gangetic Plains are known as the Great Plains that run parallel to the Himalayas.
~ They consists four divisions: Bhabar, Terai, Bangar and Khadar.
~ These plains are flat and treeless
~These plains are the world’s intensely farmed areas. Farmers grow crops such as rice and wheat, maize, sugarcane and cotton.
~ These plains also are the populated areas of India.
~These plains are known as the Bread Basket of India.

Three main plateaus in the highland. They are : Malwa, Deccan, and Chota Nagpur.
~The Deccan Plateau is shaped as a triangle and covers most of India.
~The Deccan Plateau hinders settlement, agriculture production, and the development of infrastructures.
~ In Chota Nagpur metal ores and coal have been found and forests are common.

~India has many natural resources therefore it doesn't need to invade other countries.
~Cotton, peanuts, rice, rubber, sugarcane, spices, tea and wheat are the most common resources found in India.
~The British took over India for these valuable resources.

Affects on Civilization
~The mountains and seasonal wind shape agriculture and climate
~Indus valley was the home to the first civilization


~Near the Indus River, two large cities once rules. They were Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.
~These ancient cities were known for their city planning and plumbing system.

~Agriculture led to the rise of a complex civilization in the Indus Valley
~The oceans and waterways make travel and trade easier. Trade allowed for new luxuries to enter India and create more complex cultures
~The Indus River gives off silt, which helps the farmers, grow wheat and barley.
~Near the Indus river valley civilization animals were domesticated, such as cattle, sheep, goats and chickens
~Monsoons create the two different seasons. During the summer crops are grown due to the floods



China’s geography has affected the country in many ways. The geography is very different depending on the location within the country. China is relatively large, so it has a lot of varying geographies.

China has many natural borders. There are mountains, deserts, and coastlines.

geogra1.gif CHina.jpg


~The mountains are located at China’s western and southern borders
~The Himalayan Mountains ran along the southern border of China
~Mount Everest, the tallest mountain in the world, is located in the Himalayan Mountains
~It would be very difficult for invaders to get over the mountains to attack China



~The deserts in China are found towards the northern border
~The Gobi Desert is located in China, and it is one of the driest deserts in the world
~The Taklamakan Desert is also found in China, and it is one of the largest deserts in the world
~The conditions in the deserts are very harsh



~The coastlines of China are located at the eastern border where the mainland meets the East China Sea and the South China Sea
~The long coastline provides China with access to trade routes
~The Chinese can also take advantage of the coast to find food in the ocean


The different types of geography in China have helped the country protect itself from invaders as well as to isolate the country from other nations. Due to China’s isolation from other countries for a long time, the Chinese thought they were superior and were ethnocentric.


People started living in China since the ancient times. There were early river valley civilizations found in China. Many people settled near the two main rivers in China. They are found near eastern and central China.

~The two major rivers are the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River (Long River)
~The two rivers provide fertile soil and safe drinking water for the people of China
~When there were river valley civilizations, people settled around and between the Yellow and Yangtze Rivers
~The rivers were also a way of transportation
~The Huang He was nicknamed “The river of sorrows” because yearly flooding destroyed all homes near the river



~The climate is very diverse and is sub-arctic in the north and subtropical in the south
~There is a lot of difference in latitudes and longitudes in China, which cause the temperature and precipitation levels to vary
~The air-mass movements and winds are moist in the summer and dry in the winter
~China experiences frequent typhoons, floods, monsoons, tsunamis, and droughts throughout the year

Natural Resources

~There are many elements and minerals found in China
~China’s hydropower potential is the largest in the world
~About 15% of China’s land is arable (in 2005)
~China has access to many water resources, including the rivers and oceans



Japan’s geography is very unique. It is an archipelago (chain of islands) between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan. There are about 3000 islands that are part of the Japanese archipelago. The four main islands of Japan are Hokkaido, Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu. Since Japan was separated into many islands, it was difficult to unify at first.


~Japan is about 80% mountains
~The mountains are located through each of the main islands
~Most of Japan consists of mountains and hills, covered in trees
~Not much of the country has flat land, so it is not very arable (only 11% is arable), which means there is not much land that the Japanese can use to farm on


Ring of Fire

~Japan is located in the Ring of Fire
~The Ring of Fire is in the Pacific Ocean and is in the shape of a horseshoe
~Japan is located on the major fault line, so there are many volcanoes and earthquakes
~Undersea earthquakes sometimes occur near Japan, which can cause huge, destructive waves called tsunamis, along Japan’s Pacific coast
~A few of Japan’s mountains are volcanoes
~Mount Fuji is one of the volcanoes on Japan, but it is dormant

ringfire.gif 180px-Mountfujijapan.jpg


~There are no long rivers in Japan
~The rivers that are in Japan are usually short and swift flowing
~They are too shallow and steep to be navigated


~Japan is totally surrounded by water, which makes it an island
~The coastline is generally smooth, so few natural harbors
~The Japanese depend on the water surrounding their country because it provides source of food (seafood) since there is not much arable land
~It also provides a way of transportation between islands and also to other countries for trade



~Japan’s climate varies from cool in the north to subtropical in the south
~Japan is in the temperate zone with four distinct seasons
~There are seasonal winds
~It is generally a rainy country with high humidity
~There is a lot of difference in latitude, so the temperature vary

Natural Resources

~There is coal, oil, iron resources, and mineral resources
~The ocean provides a lot of fish and other seafood
~They have limited natural resources and depend on trade and invade other countries to get resources

Limited Natural Resources
~limited amounts of resources such as coal, marble, pumice, and arable land are in
Italy, some natural gas and crude oil reserves are found in areas such as Po Valley and offshore of the Adriatic Sea
~Italy’s limited natural resources force them to import materials such as textile and clothing, energy products (gas), transport equipment, chemicals, and engineering products, and some major raw materials
~Italy’s adequate amount of arable land allowed it to be an agricultural nation until 1945 (the end of World War II) when they industrialized


~In 1815 Italy was a "Geographic Expression" - it was not united because it was divided by mountains, and was unable to form a united government


~Italy consists of the boot-shaped mainland, and the islands of Sicily and Sardinia. This has made communication difficult in the past and is one of the major reasons why it was not unified until the late 1800s

~Located near the Mediterranean Sea and the Tyrrhenian Sea, and between Africa and European nations - convenient for trade

~mountains and hills, little flat land except along coast, rivers are short, many dry during summer
~Strategic location for trade - attracted many colonists and invaders - from 900 B.C. to 1860, when Italy unified, groups such as the Phoenicians, Romans, and Muslims fought over control of Sicily

~150 miles west of mainland Italy

~largely mountainous except west and southwest



~It is built on low ground - surrounding hills provide protection from invaders


~caused first inhabitants of the area to live on steep hills formed by erosion

~farmed at base of hills
~Marsh areas were drained , developed into Forum Boarium - meat market and formed the first port of ancient Rome


-Volcanic History

~Supports naturally rich soil - allowed Italy to be an agricultural nation (until 1945)

~Active volcanoes - Etna (the largest active volcano in Europe), Vulcano, Stromboli, Vesuvius (only active volcano on European mainland)~Tufa Rock - hardened rocky sponge-like material - often used for construction such as to build foundations or walls - still used today


~Mainland Italy is a peninsula as the land is surrounded on three sides by water

~provided some protection from invasion

~Rough coastline supported trade with the formation of natural harbors


~Its location near the Byzantine Empire especially during the 15th century allowed for Greek influence during the Italian Renaissance - Byzantine exiles such as Manuel Chrysoloras were fleeing the weakening Byzantine Empire and found refuge in Italy



~ part of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia
~ sits on two continents; called Eurasia
~ European Russia contains the capitol of Moscow. Because it was located in Europe, it was hard to communicate and transport with Asian Russia.
~ Russia lacks natural resources.

The Russo-Japanese War- late 1800s

~ Russia and Japan fight for Manchuria.
~ Manchuria has an abundance of raw materials such as iron and coal.
~ Russia wanted raw materials – Russia did not have the resources it needed, due to an unfavourable climate, location, and topography.
~ Japan attacks Russians at Port Arthur in 1904.
~ Showed weakness of Russian Army and caused unrest amongst Russia.


~ Russia experiences harsh winters each year.
~ In the northern regions –there are long, severe winters, short, cool summers
~ made it unsuitable for farming
~ In the southern regions – there are warmer climates, but farming hampered due to rainfall
~ climate hinders trade and agriculture.

Effects of Russia's Climate
~ During the 18th century, Russian peasants began to add potatoes and corn into their diet.
~ These foods were not only nutritious, but had many calories and were added to soups and stews which helped fight off the cold.
~ Due to the cold weather, people wore heavy clothes, such as robes lined with fur. They also wore leggings, as well as hats.


~ Wealthy landowners used sleighs to travel in the winter snow; they were called troikas.


~ Wooden houses made out of logs were common during the time of Peter the Great.
~ These houses were stuffed with moss and insulated people from the cold winds.
~ Harsh Winters along with a short growing season have made the Russian people patient and able to endure many hardships.
~ Russians relied on the cold winters to help them defeat their enemies.


Napoleon Bonaparte’s invasion of Russia
~ Napoleon lead his army into the depths of Russia, but decreasing temperatures and snow prevented the success of Napoleon’s army.
~ Resulted in defeat of army – soldiers died from exhaustion, hunger, and cold (400,000 – 10,000 soldiers)

Operation Barbarossa; 1941
~ Hitler invades Soviet Union, following his idea of lebensraum.
~ Due to the harsh winters, it made it hard to capture Stalingrad. The Germans were ultimately unsuccessful and were forced to retreat.

Siberia~ Area in Russia that is very cold
~ was used by Czars and communist leaders as a place to send prisoners.


~ Most of the coastlines are frozen for most of the year; which hinders trade and shipping.
~ seaports are icebound part of the year
~ There are no warm water ports, except Port Arthur, in St. Petersburg.


Rivers and Seas
~ In ancient times, rivers that ran throughout Russia, served as its only connection to the outside world.
~ The water trade routes formed, encouraged the Kievan princes to make contact with the Byzantine and Easter Roman Empire. As a result, it influenced Russian culture and religion.
~ essential for internal trade and commerce throughout Europe.
~ The Caspian Sea and the Black Sea act as important trade routes and provide food, such as fish. This has enabled Russia to be a major contributor to the fish industry.


~ The Ural Mountains separate Asian Russia from European Russia.


~The Great Caucasus are the highest mountains in the European part of Russia, which lie between the Black and Caspian Seas.

Balkan Peninsula
~ Located in Southeastern Europe
~ Its mountainous region and difficult terrain, created distinct and isolated ethnic groups.
~ lead to ethnic tensions as well as a rise in nationalism.

Northern European Plain
~ It is several thousand miles of flat land, that stretches from the Atlantic Ocean, across Western and Eastern Europe.
~ mostly used as farmland; contains Bogs, heath (dwarf shrub habitat), and lakes.
~ The vast, flat land made Russia vulnerable from invasions. During the Middle Ages, they were attacked by Teutonic (German knights), Swedish and Polish armies from the West, and Mongols and Tartars invaded the East.

Geographic Advantages
~ Russia has an abundance of raw materials and a favorable climate in St. Petersburg and Moscow.
~ Their Success in productivity led to development of port and transportation infrastructure.
~ It has an availability of vast land for production sites. (leading power in the steel industry)
~ Russia takes up an immense area – allows for area of defense capabilities
~ Russia is actively involved in the world community due to its location between Europe and Asia.
~ It has become a maritime power, being that it is surrounded by water and oceans

gg.gifrr.gifee.gifaaaaa.giftt.gif b.gifrr.gifiiii.giftt.gifaaaaa.gifiiii.gifnnn.gif

Damp Climate
~good for textile production and helped keep fibers in the material soft and easy to work with - Characteristics such as these were what allowed Great Britain to be the first industrialized nation starting in the 18th century
BRITAINN.jpgexternal image burnette.women.workers.britian.figure3.jpg
Extensive Natural Resources
~availability of natural resources such as coal, iron, and lumber fueled new machines - Industrial Revolution
~iron ore used to construct machines, tools, and buildings
~large coal, natural gas, and oil reserves


Canals and rivers
~trade and travel made easier by development of canals and rivers - Industrial Revolution
~water power used to fuel machines - hydraulic engineering


~Britain is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the Strait of Dover, the English Channel, St. George’s Channel, and the Irish Sea
~protected Great Britain from involvement in wars that plagued Europe during the 17th and 18th centuries
~supported a strong navy

~easier defense
~coastline of Great Britain is indented, contains many gulfs and bays - good ports
~ fishing is important on coast

~located close to economically advanced countries - good for trade
~still involved in social, intellectual, and religious movements of mainland

~mild winters (rivers do not freeze), cool and rainy summers - grass grows well - good meadows

~flat, low-lying marshland in east drained for agriculture
~Major rivers - Thames, Severn, Trent, Humber, Yorkshire Ouse, Tyne, Mersey, and Dee - Britain’s abundance of rivers allowed for easy transportation of people and goods

~ Britain, especially London, often experiences long lasting thick fogs
~During the Industrial Revolution, the burning of fossil fuels such as coal were contributing to the air pollution and mixing with the naturally-occurring fog, creating smog
~These periods of smog were often deadly - In December 1892, the smog lasted for three days and killed about 1000 people and on December 4th, 1952, The Great London Smog lasted for five days and killed about four thousand people


ss.gifo.gifuu.gifttt.gifhh.gif aaaaaa.giff.gifrrr.gifiiiii.gifcc.gifaaaaaa.gif

~The southernmost point of Africa is Cape Agulhas - located in the Western Cape Province about 100 mi (161 km) southeast of the Cape of Good Hope
~Neighboring nations - Namibia in the northwest, Zimbabwe and Botswana in the north, and Mozambique and Swaziland in the northeast


~Climatic zones vary
~Northwest - extreme desert or namib, vegetation sparse due to low rainfall
~East along Mozambique border and Indian Ocean - lush, subtropical climate
~Southwest (Mediterranean) - wet winters and hot, dry summers in the southwest, known for their wind and production of wine
~Cape of Good Hope - winds make it a treacherous journey for sailors


~Drakensburg Mountains - southeast of Highweld

~Sutherland - coldest place in South Africa

The Republic of South Africa
~Located between the South Atlantic and the Indian Ocean
~It is the southern-most country on the continent of Africa
~Its location at the tip of Africa makes it a "pit stop" for many Europeans on their way to and from India and other parts of Asia

The Boer War (1899-1902)
~Gold and diamond deposits were found in Transvaal and Orange Free State in the late 1800s
~Thousands of people rushed to the area to get rich fast - war developed between Afrikaners and the British over control of the land - the Boers lost and became a British colony

Natural resources and land
~Mining is important in South Africa - they have natural resources like phosphates, natural gas, gold, salt, chromium, vanadium, antimony, copper, coal, platinum, iron ore, diamonds, manganese, uranium, nickel, and tin
~Good for industry like metalwork, fertilizer, garments, iron and steel
~Fertile lands, sugarcane, corn, fruits, wheat, and vegetables



Egypt is a country located in Africa which borders the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Egypt is divided into four main sections: The Nile Valley, Arabian Desert, Libyan Desert and Sinai.


~Mt Shayib, Musa Mountains which is located in Southern Sinai, Jebel Gharib, Jebel Yelleq and Jebel Hamada are all different mountain ranges within Egypt.


Nile River:
~The Nile River is the longest river in the world


~It follows from south to north and empties into the Mediterranean Sea.
~The Nile has two branches; Rosetta and Damietta Rivers
~The Nile Delta is the only delta in Egypt. It is shaped as a triangle
~The Nile River provides fertile land for the farmers.
~The area around the Nile supports about 99% of the population and is the only cultivable region in Egypt
~Along side the Nile, Papyrus plants grow. In the ancient times, Papyrus was used as paper to write down records by the scribes.




~The Libyan, Arabian and Nubian Deserts are all located in Egypt
~ Two thirds of the Sahara Desert covers Egypt. The Sahara contains rocks, sand and gravel
~95% of Egypt is desert land therefore many people live near the Nile River.
~The Libyan Desert contains 5 important oases. They are Farafirah, Bahriah, Dakhilia, Kharijah, and Siwah.
~These deserts provide protection from invaders attacking Egypt.


~Egypt has an arid climate.
~There are only two seasons in Egypt; summer and winter.
~During the winter season it rains mostly
~The summer season there is no rain fall and it is hot and dry.

Natural Resources:
~Oil, petroleum, natural gas, iron, ore and some elements are the main resources.


~The economy was based on trade, which was made possible by the Nile River and the Mediterranean Sea.
~Egyptians traveled through the Nile to trade food for cattle, ivory, gold, and granite, which was used to build the temples.

~The Incans (1200’s to 1500’s) located in Peru in South America, were huge adapters to their geography and environment.

~The Incans settled on the fertile land of the Valley of Cuzco.

~The Incan empire was huge and vast but can be categorized into three main sections: The Andes Mountains, Amazon Jungle and Coastal Desert.

~The Andes ranged from the north to the south, which covered most of Peru.

~These mountains dominated the Incan society. On these mountains the Incans developed roads to travel to and these roads connected to one major spot.

~The mountains were natural barriers, which prevented invaders from conquering the empire.
~The Amazon Jungle was on the other side of the Incan settlement, but the Incas never explored it unless necessary.

~The Incas expanded north and south of Peru.

~Lastly, the Coastal Desert lies between the mountain ranges and the Pacific Ocean. This desert is barren and the driest place in the world.

~It was helpful to the Incas because it as well provided a natural barrier like the mountains.

~The Incan civilization was once a vast powerful empire that ruled in South America. Its geographic features and location shaped the empire.



~ Part of the arc-shaped region known as the "Fertile Crescent".
~ Located between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers

~ It was the best area for farming in Southeast Asia with its rich, fertile land.
~ The Tigris and Euphrates rivers caused flooding.
~ Flooding leaves behind a rich mud, called silt which was good for farming.

~ Mesopotamia prospered due to its agriculture
~ The "Fertile Crescent" is located at the crossroads of three continents.

~ this allowed for cultural diffusion and trade.

~ Mesopotamia's climate ranges from cold seasons to hot seasons.


~ It experienced moderate periods of rain throughout the region which caused flooding.
~ The climate influenced the people's way of life and their survival.

Enviornmental challenges
~ People often settled and farmed in flat, swampy lands before 4500 B.C.

~ The Sumerians arrive because of the good, fertile soil, but are faced with many difficulties.
1. They received unpredictable flooding combined with periods of little or no rain. Sometimes the land would desert-like.
2. There were little or no natural barriers for protection. Villages often remained defenseless.
3. There was a limited number of natural resources in Sumer. The region lacked stone, wood, and metal to make tools.

Effects of Mesopotamia's geography and how it affected people's lives

~ With large deposits of silt left behind by rivers and uncontrollable flooding, farmers planted grain in silt and irrigated fields with river water.

Irrigation System

~ This resulted in large surpluses of wheat and barley. It also allowed fro villages to prosper and grow.
~ Since the "Fertile Crescent" was located at the crossroads of three continents, it was open to many invasions.
~ Many different people migrated to the "Fertile Crescent, due to its fertile soil and its location between the two rivers. ~ This promoted cultural diffusion, but also made it harder to unite many people under one ruler due to different ethnicities.
~ Violent flooding lead to pessimism (fear of disaster) among the people.
~ Numerous amounts of tributaries lead to scattered city-states.
~ this brought about disunity and warfare.

·Unpredictable flooding along with areas of marsh and swamp.
·irrigation systems from rivers to fields which brought water to the crops.
·No Natural barriers
·People built walls out of mud- bricks, so that they could defend their village.
·Limited amount of resources
·They were able to grow more food than needed, so they traded the extra food for stone, wood, and metal.



~ Modern day Iraq occupies most of the land where Mesopotamia was located.

~ Iraq has an abundance of oil. It a major contributor to the world’s industries.
~ increased number of invasions because people wanted the oil.

~ Contains arid land, with highlands - steppes, and mountains which hinders agriculture.

~ Iraq has an abundance of oil. It a major contributor to the world’s industries.
~ increased number of invasions because people wanted the oil.

~ Since it was hard to live on, there was a low population density.
~ less invasions occurred here.

~ Tigris and Euphrates Rivers allow for trading and agriculture.
~ Rivers deposit alluvial soil.

~ The Red Sea and the Persian Gulf allowed for trading and cultural diffusion in Iraq.