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Overpopulation is a serious problem that this world is faced with in this day and time. Overpopulation is a condition where an organism's numbers exceed the carrying capacity of its habitat.

If an environment has a population of 10 individuals, but there is food or drinking water enough for only 9, then in a closed system where no trade is possible, that environment is overpopulated.

Overpopulation can result from:


  • an increase in births
  • a decline in mortality rates due to medical advances
  • an increase in immigration
  • an unsustainable boost or reduction of resources


  • Twenty-five years ago, the world’s population was growing by fifty million people per year.
  • Today the annual addition has grown to nearly twice that number, and rising.
  • This creates great challenges for the government, natural environment and the people who inhabit the land. Overpopulation is a scary reality as has been seen.

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  • China is the world's largest and most populous country.
  • At the dawn of this century there were some 426 million people living in China.
  • Today the population is about 1.3 billion.
  • About two-thirds of this 900 million increase was added within the last 50 years.
  • The population has tripled since the People's Republic of China was grounded. The world's population is approximately 6.7 billion.
  • Today Mainland China alone contributes to at least 20% of the world's population. One in every five people on the planet is a resident of China.


  • China’s population started to increase dramatically after World War II.
  • In 1949, Mao encouraged Chinese families to have as many children as possible.
  • The government thought the population increase would bring money to the country and help China produce more food, build a better army, develop water control, and establish communication systems.

Population Distribution


China Population Density

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China Population Density

  • The stats above basically show that China population is not proportionally distributed, some areas are have a high population density and some areas have a low population density.
  • China’s has a very high population density of 126 people per square kilometer.
  • The mountainous area does not support much of the people of the country.
  • There is booming population in metropolitan cities.



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Overpopulation has advantages if the authorities can control it, or it will have many disadvantages.


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Environment


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Increase demand for food production


  • If a society consists of many people, then the society will face impact from people.
  • The people will suffer from a lack of natural resources; food, water, energy, and clean air.
  • When population increases, then natural resources should increase to perform people’s needs.

Water source

  • Overpopulation demands an increase of agriculture, industry, and other areas that basically depend on water.
  • Due to this there is an increase of water consumption. Water is not less important than food, so people need it for many vital uses.
  • Water is also used by plants and animals to fulfill important functions. The use of water increases as long as human population increases.

Economy


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Unemployment

  • Government will face many people without jobs to support themselves. This will raise the rate of unemployment.
  • This will also increase the rate of crime because the people will need to steal, fight, or even kill to get things they needs to survive.

Social Life


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Crowed Areas
  • People have migrated from rural places to urban areas searching for work, jobs, and a good life. Due to this the crowd of people will bring many social problems such as poverty and homelessness.

Political

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Corrupt Government

  • The government can not control overpopulation because of this there will be noisy, crazy, and starving people nationwide.
  • For example, when a country has overpopulation, then those people will have many children. Those children will need schools, health care, and all important services or they will be homeless.


Population Data of China


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Total Population (Current) 1,319,175,458
Birth Rate 16.57 per thousand
Death Rate 6.51 per thousand
Natural Increase Rate 10.06 per thousand
Total Number of Births 20,380,000 per year

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  • If population increases, then factories, companies, shops, farms, and buildings will also increase.
  • China will export its culture through its immigrants.
  • China’s overpopulation will be useful to increase other country's populations.


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From 1950 to 1978, no action to reduce overpopulation was taken by the government.

If the government would have taken action earlier, as one historian predicted, China would be growing at a normal rate today. The economic and social life of the country would also be in a safer situation, and then China could also become an important country in global affairs.


In 1963, the average number of children born to a Chinese woman was 7.5.


One-Child Policy



  • Established by Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping in 1979 to limit China's population growth
  • Restricts the number of children married urban couples can have to one (One child per couple)
  • Delayed marriage and delayed child bearing
  • Fewer and healthier births
  • The policy is enforced through fines that are imposed based on the income of the family
  • Parents with multiple births aren’t given the same benefits as parents of one child
  • Parents have to pay money to the government in order to get permission to have another child
  • Limit has been strongly enforced in urban areas, but varies from location to location
  • In most rural areas, families are allowed to apply to have a second child if the first is a girl, or has a physical disability, mental illness, mental retardation.

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Exemptions for several cases:

  • Rural couples
  • Ethnic minorities
  • Parents without any siblings themselves
  • Approximately 35.9% of China's population is currently subject to the one-child restriction


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  • India is the second most populous country in the world and by 2030 it is estimated that it will be the most populous overtaking China.
  • India does not have the large land mass that China has.
  • India has 2.4% of the world's land area and 16% of the world's population.
  • In the last 40 years, the Indian population has doubled. India's current population is 1.13 billion.
  • One person out of every 6 is Indian. This steep increase has severely influenced the fall of the standard of living.


By 2030 India will be the most populous country



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  • Urban Poor – contribute most to population
  • Urban Poor - maximum production of labor force
  • Low income = more children (an inverse relationship)
  • Desire for male children
–Security when parents get older
–Female children considered a liability



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  1. Inadequate fresh water for drinking use as well as sewage treatment.
  2. Depletion of natural resources, especially fossil fuels. Increased levels of air pollution
  3. Lack of infrastructure to provide a rising standard of living for most of their people
  4. Global warming and changes in atmospheric composition
  5. Irreversible loss of arable land and increases in desertification
  6. Illegal (and legal) immigration to the developed world on an unrecordable scale, creating political problems in Europe and the United States. Even the controlled and legal migration of talented and well-educated people from the Third World to the developed world cause problems.
  7. High infant and child mortality. High rates of infant mortality are caused by poverty. Rich countries with high population densities have low rates of infant mortality.
  8. Increased incidence of hemorrhagic fevers and other infectious diseases from crowding, lack of adequate sanitation and clean potable water, and scarcity of available medical resources.
  9. Starvation and famine is due to poverty. Rich countries with high population densities do not have famine, but not India though.
  10. Poverty as well as inflation in some regions and a resulting low level of capital formation. Poverty and inflation are due to bad government and bad economic policies.
  11. Low birth weight due to the inability of mothers to get enough resources. Low life expectancy in India with fastest growing populations.
  12. Unhygienic living conditions for many based upon water resource depletion, discharge of raw sewage and solid waste disposal.
  13. Elevated crime rate due to drug cartels and increased theft by people stealing resources to survive.
  14. Conflict over scarce resources and crowding, leading to increased levels of fighting.
  15. Over-utilization of infrastructure, such as mass transit, highways, and public health systems.


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By: Sachin Kumar










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The world we live in is very different than the world of the past in terms of diseases and medicine. Modern medicine has improved drastically and has revolutionized social values and expectations. Disease has always been a part of human culture and history, and in the past mass epidemics have devastated huge numbers of people. In the past century, world organizations and governments have begun to take steps towards the eradication of diseases. Despite their effort and progress, there are still diseases that we have no cure for today, and are still claiming millions of lives. Also, the eradication of diseases is extremely expensive because of the time, resources, and manpower needed. However, there are several positive effects that come from the eradication of diseases as well.


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Smallpox - Smallpox is an infectious disease unique to human beings. There are 2 different variants of smallpox, Variola major and Variola minor. The latter is a less serious form of the virus, with only a 1% death rate among its victims. Variola major however, is a much more serious case. This variant has a 30%-35% mortality rate among its victims, and 65%-80% of survivors are left with scars, and are often disabled.

Smallpox is thought to have originated around 3000 years ago in India or Egypt and has plagued human populations up till the 20th century. In the 20th century alone, smallpox has claimed 300-500 million lives. However, in 1979 the World Health Organization, or WHO confirmed the global eradication of smallpox. This was the first human infectious disease to be eradicated in history.
This was achieved through extensive vaccination campaigns, and international efforts.

The costs of vaccinations are increasing and are difficult to maintain with the state of today's international economy. Also, many parents today are refusing to have their children vaccinated due to the possibility of them having autism, which is a severe mental disorder. Due to factors such as these, there is always the possibility of new outbreaks of this disease.

Also, there are smallpox samples held in laboratories and other scientific and medical institutions that are kept for research. There is a great controversy over whether or not to destroy these samples due to the threat of new outbreaks. Another dangerous potential is the possibility of an attack involving bioterrorism. People are afraid that hostile terrorist factions could get a hold of these samples and use it against citizens.

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Boy with Smallpox

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Poliomyelitis (Polio) - Polio is a disease which mainly affects children under the age of 5. 1 in every 200 who suffer from polio end up with irreversible paralysis, and 5%-10% of these people die from the immobilization of breathing muscles.

Since 1998, polio cases have decreased 99%. The number of reported cases decreased from 350,000 to 1997 in 2006. This has resulted from global efforts to eradicate the disease. There are only 4 countries in the world that are still polio-endemic, and they are Pakistan, India Nigeria, and Afghanistan. Persistent outbreaks of polio transmission in northern India, northern Nigeria and the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan are the current focus of the polio eradication initiative.

In 1988, the 41st World Health Assembly, consisting then of delegates from 166 Member States, began the campaign for the global eradication of polio, and this marked the launch of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, led by the WHO ( World Health Organization).


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Polio Vaccination



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STDs are also known as VDs (venereal disease), and more recently the term STI (Sexually Transmitted Infection) has been preferred because a person with an infection may not show any symptoms, but can still pass on the disease to others. STDs are rather self explanatory. They are mainly contracted through sexual contact, although there are several exceptions.

Syphilis

Syphilis is passed from person to person through direct contact with a syphilis sore. Sores occur mainly on the external genitals, vagina, anus, or in the rectum. Sores also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. Transmission of the organism occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex. Pregnant women with the infection can pass it to the babies they are carrying. Syphilis cannot be spread through contact with toilet seats, doorknobs, swimming pools, hot tubs, bathtubs, shared clothing, or eating utensils.

HIV/AIDS

The HIV virus can be acquired through many ways, not just sexual contact. This virus can be acquired through blood to blood contact, sharing of hypodermic needles, or pregnant women with the virus can pass it on to their babies when they are born. HIV stands for Human Immunodeficiency Virus. What this virus does is, once it enters the human body, it then specifically attacks the human immune system, as suggested by its name, More specifically, it targets the T-Lymphocytes which are responsible for triggering the human immune system which then dispatches white blood cells to combat any infections. There are no symptoms of HIV, however after several years of its presence in the body, the human immune system will have been heavily weakened and the HIV infection then causes AIDS. AIDS stands for Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, which progressively weakens the human immune system making the individual susceptible to various infections. Although modern medicine has the capability to slow the effects of the disease, there is currently no cure or vaccine for AIDS. AIDS is now a pandemic. In 2007, it was estimated that 33.2 million people lived with the disease worldwide, and that AIDS had killed an estimated 2.1 million people, including 330,000 children. Over t3/4 of these deaths were in sub-Saharan Africa, hindering economic growth and destroying human resources.
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World AID's Day Ribbon


Chlamydia

This infection is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis, which has the potential to cause damage to a woman's reproductive organs. Symptoms of this infection are usually mild or absent, however, serious cases can cause irreversible damage, including infertility, and can occur silently because the woman is not aware of any problems. This bacterium can be contracted through sexual intercourse, oral sex, and childbirth. It is also the most frequently reported bacterium-caused STD in the United States.

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Lifecycle of Malaria

Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium. Plasmodium enters the human body through the blood contact that occurs when an infected mosquito bites a human being. In the human body, the parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells.

Symptoms of malaria do not usually occur for 10-15 days after infection. Symptoms include fever, headache, and vomiting. If not treated quickly, malaria can become life threatening. It cuts of red blood cell supplies to vital organs and disrupts homeostasis.

Although scientists have developed medicines to treat malaria infections, in many parts of the world, these parasites have developed immunity to these medicines and are a serious problem.

Currently, about 3.3 billion people on earth, (half of our current population) are at risk of contracting malaria. Every year, there are about 250 million cases of malaria, among these cases, about 100 million die. People living in poorer nations are at greater risk of contracting the parasite because of the lack of funds to implement nationwide control of this parasite. In Africa, malaria is the cause of 20% of all childhood deaths. Also, it is estimated that every 30 seconds a child dies from malaria.






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A revolutionary achievement of modern medicine is the antibiotic. Antibiotics are also known as chemotherapeutic agents. Their function is to inhibit, or kill the growth of bacteria. In the past, there were various kinds of bacterial infections that could cause severe sickness, such as strep throat, or even life threatening infections caused by bacteria such as staphylococcus. Modern antibiotics are capable of destroying these bacterial inf ections and have saved countless lives. However, like all other living organisms, bacteria are capable of adaptions and mutations. In a bacterial population, there are always individuals which by chance have developed mutations which render antibiotics useless, however these are almost always the minority. When antibiotics are administered, then the majority of bacteria without immunity to the antibiotic will be wiped out, leaving room for the antibiotic resistant strand to reproduce quickly and easily due the lack of existing competition.

Due to the misuse and overdose of antibiotics in past years,

there have been more and more strands of antibiotic resistant bacteria, and
this is unfortunately a very serious, and ever increasing problem all over the world .
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Antibiotics





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Urbanization has been used ever since the start of the Neolithic Revolution. Throughout, history people developed news skills which helped out later on in their civilization or country's history. This change is known as urbanization that has being used due to the increase of population all over the world, creating new cities or towns.The most urbanization that happen in the world presently is in china and in the USA, which causes the overuse of eletricity which harms the earth and most of the energy is taken up by buildings made by the people in china, USA or anywhere in the world, where Business grow everday.


Like Shown in this picture of Toronto in the USA
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The process of urbanization around the world can cause over populated cities and towns which could lead to seperation of families or families migrating out of there own country to get jobs. People prefer to live in urban areas due because in rural areas it is mostly farming jobs tha are owned by small families, and in rural areas it is diffuclut to improve one standard of living, so people move to different areas but the cost of living has forced people to live in low quality slums and real poor parts cities or towns.



Causes:



  • Urbanization occurs naturally due to the need of human corporations and due to the need of jobs by people all over socities in the world today.
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  • There are overuse of certain electronics in which new buisnesses show up which causes the production of new factories which there is need space for so people cut down forests or disturb nature which can cause global problems such as protestors and also the need for urbanization which means build up of cities and towns.
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  • Urbanization can be a good thing in the society of the 21 century due to the need of jobs all over the world which means people who don't have jobs don't have an opprotunity to work and means homeless or unable to support your family.
  • These problems happen all over the world, the constant struggle for people to have homes and jobs is hard in rural place where there is not a lot of job opportunitys so poeple move urban places where there is suppose to be more jobs and a chance to get a better education.
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  • Cities are known to be places where money, services and wealth are used most of the times.
  • Cities are where fortunes are made and where social mobility is possible for people that were growing up in lower class family and later on in life they could get a better job by going to school.
  • Businesses, which generate jobs are usually located in urban areas, whether the source is trade or tourism, it is also through the cities that foriegn money goes into a country.

Effects:

Economic effects


  • Urbanization is often viewed as a negative due to the mistreated workers who make little money due to the company hiring illegal immigrants or other workers willing to work for companyies in the city for $8-9 an hour.
The City of Chicago, Illinois
The City of Chicago, Illinois

Environmental effects






  • There could be the start new factories which means more pollution in the air which can cause many problems in the envirnment such as: radiation which can cause cancer and other diseases dealing with lung cancer.
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Attempts to solve the urbanization problem around the world:





















  • Not make any more large companies around the world and this would mean less pollution in the earth.
  • People protest for people not to cut down trees to save the environment and to stop the growth of urbanization around the world.
  • people also stop using as much hramful products that everyone uses which could be the computers

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Child Labor
By: Alex Seminara http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hf1afEGDslY


That's Child Labor
By:Katy

Imagine not being able to move
In the same spot, In the same groove
Not knowing when you'll be free
Your heart is searching for a moment of glee
That's Child Labor

Imagine not being able to eat 3 meals a day
You never get a chance to play
The money you make is less then a dollar
Like you're hooked by a collar
That's Child Labor

You feel like your life is over
Like you will never find your 4-leaf clover
There's nothing for you to remember
But your work as a Child Laborer
That's Child Labor

Don't worry you'll be free
You'll see
We are all helping you
Just belive
That's why we're here
Don't fear
That's why we're fighting Child Labor

By: Katy,7th Grade Smyrna Middle School,USA




Africa

  • Most of the children are under the age of 14 years old.


  • They leave home to escape the severe poverty of their home areas.


  • In almost all cases, according to some of the children who managed to return, they ended up in poorly paid jobs on plantations or in domestic service, often at great risk to their health, sometimes beaten or prey to sexual predators.


  • The UN Children's Fund (UNICEF) and other agencies are launching campaigns to try to stop child labor in many African countries.


  • Across Africa, there are an estimated 80 million child workers, a number that could rise to 100 million by 2015.


  • Since the problem is closely linked to the continent's poverty, and can only be eliminated with increases in family incomes and children's educational opportunities, UNICEF, the ILO and other groups are focusing initially on the "worst forms" of child labor. These include forced labour and slavery, prostitution, employment in the drug trade and other criminal activities, and occupations that are especially dangerous to children's health and security.


  • Many government agencies are trying to track down child traffickers, because trafficking tears children away from the protection of their famalies.The trafficking of children for commercial sexual exploitation was also reported.


  • Trafficked children, the study found, were working between 10 and 20 hours a day, carrying heavy loads and operating dangerous tools. They often lack adequate food and drink. Nigeria reported that one out of five children trafficked in that country died of illness or accidents. Others contracted sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV/AIDS. Although parents were sometimes persuaded by recruiters to send their children away to earn some extra income, often neither the children nor the parents were paid.


  • Africa is one of the biggest countries with a poor school and education system.


  • Most parents who send their children to work say that the children only work to make money to support the family.


  • HIV/AIDS is a large spreading disease in many African countries, and it increases the likelihood of children being forced into exploitative labor.
childlabor22.jpg image by 06aug00405
childlabor22.jpg image by 06aug00405

childlabor22.jpg image by 06aug00405
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Latin America

  • In Latin America, there is an estimated 250 million child workers between the ages of 5 and 14 years old. 18 million are between the ages of 10 and 14 years old. Out of all of the children in Latin America, an estimated 26% are forced to work.


  • In Colombia, an estimated 2.5 million children are forced to work to support their families. Only 60% of all the children in Colombia leave school with a primary school diploma.


  • On average, child laborers work six to seven hours a day. Each day, they work about nine hours. Their wages are pitifully low and most of them receive no health or unemployment benefits.


  • Many children are found working in secret and illegal workshops. They make fireworks and other expolsives, and they expose themselves to toxic, flammable, and explosvie material.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6dnQ6JpANCI&feature=related
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Asia

  • There are about 250 million economically active children (individuals below 18 years old) worldwide.Sixty one percent or roughly 153 million of these workers are in Asia.


  • Children in Asia begin their work as young as seven years old.


  • Exploitation of children in commercial sex trade remains the worst form of child labor in our region. UNICEF estimates that about one million children are lured or forced into the sex trade in Asia every year. Many children were introduced to the work by people who have known them their entire lives.


  • Trafficking of children is also a large problem.Trafficking of both children and adults feeds largely on the desire of poor families and many young people for economic and personal advancement through migration for work.Trafficking routes are found within countries, from rural to urban centers or to areas with large demand for unskilled labor, and across borders, usually from less developed to developing countries.


  • Also referred to as child servitude and child debt bondage, bonded child labor exists in Asia. It is closely linked to trafficking of children, and more extensively rooted in socio-cultural and political structures in parts of South Asia. In many cases, bonded children are delivered in repayment of a loan or other favors given in advance, real or imaginary, usually to the parents or the guardians of the child. Children work like slaves in the process, never knowing when their debt will finally be considered paid.Bonded child labor in South Asia is found in domestic work and in agricultural, brick making, glass, leather tanning, gem polishing, and many other manufacturing and marketing industries.


  • Household child domestic workers exist in Asia, whrere children go to work in middle to upper class homes in very unhealthy and unsanitary working conditions. They are remained hidden.


  • Internal armed conflicts in several Asian countries expose more children to armed groups and increase the probability of their forced recruitment as combatants. Children are not only sent to the front lines, they are also used as spies, porters, helpers in camps, and are often subjected to abusive treatment.


  • A number of children's organizations have become effective change agents in their communities and countries across the region.
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Status of women

ASIA:



  • The Chinese Constitution and laws provide for the equal rights of women, and a network of women's groups advocate to protect women's rights. Such groups focus on providing education, protection, and legal assistance to women.


  • The Labor Insurance Regulations provide for the retirement of women at a younger age than men.


  • The National People's Congress (NPC) enacted the Law on the Protection of Women's Rights and Interests (LPWRI) in 1992 to "protect women's lawful rights and interests, and promote equality between men and women.


  • A number of independent women's governtment oraganizations have existed since the early 1990s and a new women's movement seems to be growing.


  • The status of Japanese women in society has changed during the 20th Century. No longer are they just housewives and mothers; they are business women, politicians, and contributors to society.
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  • The majority of all Japanese woman still derive their basic satisfaction in life from the power they get in raising a family. But, for many, such a life is not enough.


  • younger women who have been to college aspirations for significant achievement outside the home are increasingly common.
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  • More and more Japanese women hold jobs every year; an estimated 50-60% of all women over the age of 15 work outside the home.


  • South Korean women are largely well-educated, engaged in the economy, and blessed with optimal health services.


  • Korean feminist groups were mostly established in the 1980s, with legislation on domestic violence and women’s development beginning in the 1990s and continuing today.

  • The traditional way of recording family in South Korea called "hoju" has been abbolished, leaving women with more power in the family.

The Middle East:


  • Women enjoy political and social rights in many Muslim countries, although still suffer in others.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TMtxbhopkts
  • Egypt has recently granted women the right to divorce their husbands.

  • In Tunisia, abortion is legal, and polygamy is prohibited.

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  • Women have served as ministers in the Syrian, Jordanian, Egyptian, Iraqi, and Tunisian governments, and as Vice President in Iran.

  • The top position in government, according to strict Islamic laws, is denied to women based on a dubious Hadith (collections of sayings and deeds attributed to Muhammad).

  • The top position in government, according to strict Islamic laws, is denied to women based on a dubious Hadith (collections of sayings and deeds attributed to Muhammad).

  • According to the Interparlia-mentary Union, the political representation of women in parliaments in Arab nations lags behind all other countries of the world, and Kuwait has yet to grant women the right to vote.



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Latin America:

  • In Latin America the roles and activities of women have expanded greatly in the last decade.
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  • Recent constitutional laws and civil, family, and labor codes have given women greater rights in marriage, divorce, family realations, employment, and property.


  • In Latin America, Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, Guyana, Mexico, Nicaragua, and Peru have added such provisions.


  • The right of women to vote, run for elective office, and to hold public employment are essentially universal today in Latin America.


  • A number of Latin American countries retain laws governing the marital relationship which give the husband strong control over the wife and children.

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  • The implementation of laws guaranteeing the right to employment and equal pay for women workers are very important. Most of the Latin American countries incorporate these principles in their labor codes or constitutions.